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helping behavior that does not benifit the helper
a fairly stable evaulation of something as good or bad that makes a person think, feel, or behave positively or negatively about some person, group, or social issue.
bystander effect
one persion people fail to help steranger in distress; the larger the gorup a person is in, the les likely he is to hel, artly  because noo one in the group think its is up to him to act.
casual attribution
an inference about what caused a person's behavior
central groute to persuation
process involved in attitude change when someone carefully evaluates the evidence and the arguments.
cognitive dissonance
an uncomfortable inconsistency among one's actions, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings. eople attempt to reduce it by  aking their actions, beliefs, attitudes or feelings more consistent with one another.
collectivistic cultures
cultures in which people ar econsidrered fundamentally interdependent and which emphasize obligation within one's family and immediate comunity.
companionate love
emotional state characterized by affection for those whose lives are deeply intertweined with one's own.
a change in behavior in response to a request
a change in  behavior due to explicit or implicit social pressure.
dehumanization of the victim.
thinking bout a potential victim in ways that make him seem inhuman; this view makes aggression toward the victime more likely and less torubline tot he aggressor
a state in which an individual in a grouy pexperiences a weakned sense of personal identity and diminished self-awareness.
dispositional attributions
explanations of someone's behavior in terms of factors itnertal to the person, such as traigs or preferences.
fundamental attribution error
tendency to atrribute beaviors to a person's internal qualities while underestimating situation influences
group polarization
a pattern in grou pdiscussions in which each memeber's attitudes because more extreme, even though the discussion draws attention to arguments that could have moderated their views.
a patten of thinking that occurs when a cohesive group minimises or ignores members' differences of opinion
halo effect
tendency to assume that people who have one good trait also have other good traits
the tendency to like mate with like
implicit theories of personality
beliefs about what kinds of behaviors are associated with particular traits and which traits susually go together; used to develop expectaiton about people's behavior
cultures inw which peopel ar econsidered fundamentally independednt and which value standing out by achieving private goals.
infomrational influence
a reason for conformity based on people's desire to be correct
mere pressense effect
change sin person's behavior due to another perosn's presence
motivated social cognition
thinking about the social world in ways that serve an emotional need. such as when people helpd beliefs that help them feel less anxious
norm of reciprocity
social standard the suggests that a favor must be repaid
nomative influence
reason for conformity  based on people's desire to be liked
a change in behaior in response to an instruction or command from another person.
out-group homogeniety
tendency for a memebrs of a group "the in-group) to view members of another group as "all alike" or less varied than members of his or her own group.
peripheral route to presuasaion
the process invovled in attitude change when someon erelies on superfical factors, such as the appearance or charisma of the person presenting the arguent.
pluralistic ignorance.
a type of misunderatnding that occurs when memebrs of a group don't realize that the other members share their percpetions. as a result, each memebr wrongly interprets the others' inaction as reflecting their better understanding of the situation.
a negative attitude toward anther person  based on the person's gorup memebership.
risky shift
a patten in which a grou pappears more willing to take chaces or to take an extreme stance than any individual memebrs would have been on their own.
romantic love
an emotional state characterized by idealization of trh ebeloved, obsessive thoughts of this person, and turbulent feelings.
reomeo-and-julient effect
intensification of romantic love that can occur when the couples parent's oppose relationship
self-fulfilling prohecies
beliefs about how a person will behave that actually make the expected behavior more likely
self-perception theory
we know our own attitues and feelings on ly by observing out own behaviors and deciding what propably caused them, just as we do when trying to understand others.
situational attributions
explanation of somen'es behavior in terms of the circumstances rather than aspects of the person
social facilitation
the tendency to perform simple or well-practiced tasks better in the presense of others than alone
social inhibition
the tendency to perform scomplex or difficult taks more poorly in the presense of others
social loafind
a patten in whic people working together on a task generalte less total effort than they would have if ithey had each worked alone
stanford prison experiement
philip zimbardo's sutyd o fthe effect of roles on behavior. participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or gaurds in a mock prison. the study was ended early because of the "guards" role-induced cruelty
schemas that are often negative and are used to categorize compmlex groups of people
that's-not-all technique
a sales method that starts with a modest offer; then improves on it. the improvements seems to require reciprocation, which often takes the form of purchasin the item.
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