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What is Anthropology?
"Culture is a shared set of ideals, values, and standards of Behavier" -Walter W. Tyler, 1948
What are the 4 subfields of Anthropolgy?
Cultural Anthropology, Archeology, Physical Anthropology, and Linguistics
Who was Bishop Usher?
Was the first to try to date the origin of the Earth. Used the Bible.
Uniformitaranism
The beliefs that processes that shaped our world in the past are still taking place today
Particulartism
The belief that every every culture has a particular history that makes it unique
Franz Boas
Particulartism
Paradigm
The principles through which we veiw the world
Cultural Materialism
The belief that the goal of man is to acheive power and wealth. Founded by Leslie White. The conter paradigm of Sociobiology.
Sociobiology
The Belief counter to Cultural Materialism. Founded by E.O. Wilson.
Who discovered A. Anamensis and when?
Meave Leakey- 1995
Who discovered A. Aferensis and when?
Johnanson- 1975
Who discovered A. Africanus?
Raymond Dart- 1929
Who discovered H. Habilis?
Richard Leakey
When did A. Anamensis live?
4.2-4.0 million years
When did A. Afarensis live?
3.8-2.9 million years
When did A. Africanus live?
2-3 million years
When did H. Habilis live?
2.3-1.4 million years
When did H. Erectus live?
1.9 million-500,000 years
When did H. Neanderthalensis live?
600,000-32,000 years
When did H. Sapiens arrive?
150,000
How do Hominids different from Hominines?
Hominines are our direct Ansesters, Hominids are similar species.
Signs
Something which is universial, not cultural
Symbols
Something a culture uses to referance something else.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
The Theroy that language dictacts though, and effects your world veiw
Enculturation
The process by which a society's culture is passed from generation to generation
Acculturation
The Process of learning another societies culture
Modal Personaities
The "personality types" typical to a culture
Self-Awareness
Child developmet, longest in humans.
Margrat Meade
Studied coming of Age in Sumoa
What are the 2 types on Lingustics?
Histoical and Discriptive
Discriptive Lingustics
Morphemes and Allophones
Culturally Ecology
The way we articulate with the Enviroment is the core ofour society. Founded by Julian Stewart
What are the 4 patterns of Substance?
Hunting/gathering, Pastoralization, Horticulturalism, Non-industrial cities.
3 Major resources in Economics
Land (Natural Resources), Labor (Human Resources), and Technology
Leveling Mechanism
A cultural obligation of the memers of a community to help keep everyone on equal footing.
Reciprocity
A transaction between two parties whereby goods and services are exchanged.
Kula Ring
A form of balanced reciprocity that reinforces trade relations amoung the seafaring Trobriand people. Naceleces go clockwise, Armshells counterclockwise.
Potlatching
On the Northwest coast of North America, a ceremonial event in which a village chief publicly gives away stockpiled food, and other goods that signify wealth.
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