Cloned from: Family Therapy



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SYSTEMS PSYCHOLOGY = ?
Family therapy
TWO DIRECTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH
1. individual therapy 2. systems psychology
DESCRIPTORS OF INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY
1. individualistic 2. reductionist - just the client 3. subjective - an art not a science 4. linear - cause and effect 5. value/bias 6. focuses on why things happen
CYBERNETICS
comes from invention of the computer looks at the whole without reduction
VIEW OF CYBERNETICS
a system is self-regulating and self-governing
CYBERNETICS: SYSTEMS ARE ___________________
closed by a specific set of operating laws/rules
IN CYBERNETICS, INDIVIDUAL ...
components of the system are not identifiable or representative of the whole system
DESCRIPTORS OF SYSTEMS PSYCHOLOGY
causality is reciprocal wholistic subjective patterns identify the system dynamics relationships define roles/ expectations therapy focus on WHAT things are happening
WHY DO FAMILIES COME TO THERAPY?
1. one member is having a problem - identified as the \"sick\" one 2. the family system is experiencing change 3. the family system has been exposed: neglect, incest, crime 4. the family system makes a conscious choice to change dynamics
FAMILIES EVOLVING ....
appears positive
FAMILIES DEVOLVING ...
appears negative
FAMILY SYSTEMS MAY CHANGE BY ...
1. children maturing 2. system not functioning 3. an individual member stabilizes creating a malfunction
TENETS OF A FAMILY SYSTEM
1. one family member is \"marked\" as responsible 2. observable patterns of thought, communication, problem solving, and views of the outside world 3. shared-fixed perceptions of the family system always distrustful of therapist ability to affect change 4. each member has their own agenda 5. problems are solvable but have emotions attached to them 6. parents bring both their family of origin and their partnership
INITIAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE THERAPIST
1. rules express defined roles and values 2. rules set boundaries to maintain homestasis 3. identify the driver and change him to change the system
COMMUNICATION STYLES
high context- communicates a lot of info: expressively, emotionally, verbally low context - few words, little self-expression, little variance in tone \"positive\" communication promotes homestasis \"negative\" communication comes down on change
ENTROPY
trend toward maximum chaos and dysfunction
EQUIFINALITY
system always ends up at same homestasis
EQUIPOTENTIALITY
numerous outcomes can result from the same initial circumstances
DOUBLE BIND HYPOTHESIS ORIGINATOR
George Bateson
DOUBLE BIND MESSAGE DEFINITION
two meanings both are bad ex. If you leave me, I will kill myself.
RESULTS OF DOUBLE BIND MESSAGES
unable to know what others really mean will not know kind of message being sent
TRIANGULATION THEORY ORIGINATOR
Murray Bowen
PARENTIFICATION
when a parent pulls a child into an adult level talk
EXPERIENTAL ORIGINATOR
Carl Whittaker
THE FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUE OF TODAY
structural family therapy
ORIGINATOR OF STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY
Salvador Minuchin at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic
OBJECTIVES OF STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY
1. set clearer boundaries 2. increase flexibility in communication 3. enact dysfunctional transactions during therapy sessions (to observe) 4. therapist promotes conflict 5. focus on current realities, behaviors 6. identify individual points of entry
FIRST ORDER CHANGE
things are not working within the system identify the rule and work to adjust the rule
SECOND ORDER CHANGE
therapist attempts to change the rules ... likely to be met with resistance
TENETS OF STRUCTURAL THERAPY
1. family is a system 2. homestasis locks behavior patterns 3. therapist identifies presenting problem 4. removal of member drives the system back to homestasis ???
THERAPIST\'S ROLE IN STRUCTURAL THERAPY
1. paradoxical attack and support 2. begin gently but maintain control to establish working relationship 3. highly attentive to all behaviors 4. actively directs interactions
PRIMARY TECHNIQUES OF STRUCTURAL THERAPY
1. align with the driver (achieved with empathy) 2. therapist becomes part of the system 3. focus on driver OR the problem person 4. mimicking behaviors
METHODS OF CHANGING THE HOMESTASIS
1. reframe 2. contradiction 3. discrediting or invalidating 4. role reversal 5. theoretical problem solving
REFRAMING
1. redefine what is happening 2. paint a larger picture of what is happening 3. give new meaning to what is happening
PARADOXICAL INTERVENTION
1. describing the symptom 2. doing the opposite of what seems right \"How\'s that working out for you?\"
PROBLEM FORMULATION/RESOLUTION
1. problem belongs to one who is defining it 2. problems come about as solutions are devised
STOCHASTIC
patterns can be disrupted by the therapist but no guarantee as to what will happen next
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY
known as transgenerational or extended family therapy
MAJOR TENANTS OF PSYCHODYNAMIC
1. emotional illness is developed in relationships with others 2. a therapeutic relationship is the universal treatment for emotional illness
ORIGINATOR OF CONTEXTUAL FAMILY THERAPY: EMOTIONAL LEDGERS
Ivan Nagy 1953
ORIGINATOR OF PSYCHOANALYSIS + OBJECT RELATIONS THERAPY
Ronald Fairbairn 1952
FOCUS OF PSYCHODYNAMIC FAMILY THERAPY
helping clients deal with issues they bring with them from their families of origins
FOCUS OF CONTEXTUAL FAMILY THERAPY
ethics and fairness are the driving forces of a family
SPLIT FLIAL LOYALTY
child aligns with one parent at the expense of another
DEFINITION OF \"LEDGER\"
interpersonal/relational account book
EXPERIENTAL FAMILY THERAPY
1. 60s and humanistic psychology 2. focus on freedom of expression 3. goal to develop sensitivity and expression of emotions
EXPERIENTIAL AND WHITTAKER
1. first a gynecologist 2. worked with play therapy 3. then worked with oppositional adolescent
3 PHASES OF EXPERIENTIAL THERAPY
1. engagement 2. involvement 3. disentanglement
ORIGINATOR OF GESTALT FAMILY THERAPY
Walter Kempler -1980s
FAMILY THERAPY BY DECADES
planted 1930/40 fertile soil 1950s buds in 1960s blossoms 1970s
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