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Describe the anatomy of the heart and it's placement.
The heart is a hollow, cone shaped organ which lays obliquely in the cardiac notch. The apex is the bottom of the heart and lies on the Diaphragm at the 5th intercostal space. The Base is at the top and is at the level of the 2nd intercostal space
What is the approximate size and weight of the heart?
It is approximately the size of the owners fist ✊ 12cm long, 9cm wide and 6cm think. it weights about 300 grams
What are the names of the tissues that make up the heart?
Pericardium, Myocardium and Endocardium
What is the name for the muscle tissue within the heart?
Myocardium
What is the Endocardium?
The smooth inner layer of the heart consisting of epithelium cells. The structure helps to prevent blood clotting.
Which layer of the hearts tissue is responsible for automaticity
Myocardium
Which of the ventricles is the thickest and why?
Left ventricle as it has to pump the blood around the whole body
What is pericarditis?
inflammation of the pericardium
Which of the hearts tissues is responsible for preventing over-distension?
Pericardium
What is Cardiac Tamponade
Blood is the Pericardium usually to blunt trauma
What is the portal circulation?
The blood supply to the abdomen
What is the name of the valve that separates the right atrium and right Ventricle?
Tri-Cuspid valve
Where can the Mitral valve be found?
Between the left atrium and left ventricle
What is the septum?
The tissue that separates the two ventricles
Where does the blood supply for the coronary arteries arise?
Through the ascending aorta
Which of the coronary arteries supply the anterior wall of both ventricles?
Anterior interventricular branch (AIB)
The circumflex branch is a left coronary artery, which of the chambers does it supply blood to?
Left atria and left ventricle
The right coronary artery splits into two, name these.
Posterior interventricular branch and Marginal branch.
The right Ventricle is supplied with oxygen by the marginal branch. What supplies the right atria with oxygen?
small branches that come off the right coronary arteries
What is a MI?
Myocardial infarction which is caused by a thrombus in any of the coronary arteries
During a cardiac cycle where does the blood flow after the pulmonary trunk?
Through the pulmonary arteries
Which valve stops the backflow of blood from the left ventricle?
Bicuspid /Mitral valve
How does the blood supply for the heart return for oxygenation?
Coronary sinus
Which of the nerves slows the heart?
Vagus, which is parasympathetic
What is the firing rate for the atrioventricular node?
40 to 60
What is the Bachmans bundle?
Series of pathways, for an impulse created by the SA node, which travel across both atria
What is the reason for the slight delay in the electrical impulse in the AV node?
To allow the atria to eject all of the blood
How long is one cardiac cycle?
0.8 seconds
Which part of the ecg shows atrial contraction?
P wave which lasts around 0.1 seconds
What happens during the QRS complex in an ecg?
Contraction (depolarisation) of the ventricles
Which of the cardiac cycles last around 0.4 seconds?
Complete cardiac diastole
What is Systole
Period of contraction
What other factors assist venous return?
Position of the body(Standing/lying down)

Muscular contraction (legs)

Respiratory movements (negative pressure on inspiration)

Suction of the heart(during diastole)
Name the three layers of blood vessels
Tunica adventitia (Fibrous tissue)

Tunica media (Smooth muscle and elastic tissue)

Tunica Intima (squamous epithelium/
Name the five blood vessels
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins
Which of the blood vessels have valves?
Veins
How does the blood move through the arteries?
Ventricular contraction and elasticity of the artery wall.
What factors can affect peripheral resistance?
Diameter of the tube
Length of the tube
Viscosity of the blood
During vasodilation what happens to the diameter of the lumen
Increases
Where can you find the Cardio-acceleratory and cardio-inhibitory centre?
In the cardiovascular centre in the medulla oblongata
Which of the cardiovascular centres will increase heart rate?
Cardio-acceleratory centre
Name two Baroreceptors
Vagus and glossopharayngeal
Which area controls the dilation OD blood vessels?
Vaso motor centre
What does Parasympathetic stimulation via the vagus nerve lead to?
Reduction of heart rate and decrease in contractility
What factors affect heart rate?
Autonomic nervous system (hormones)

Position

Exercise

Emotions

Gender

Age

Temperature

Baro-receptors
What is the temperature of blood?
37'C
How many litres of blood does an.average adult have?
5
(males 70mls per kg)
(females 60mls per kg)
(children 80mls per kg)
What is the structure and function on an erythrocyte?
Red blood cells are bi concave discs (improved surface area) formed in the red bone marrow that have no nucleus, they transport oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body and have a life span of 120 days
What is Oxyhaemoglobin?
Combination of Haemoglobin and Oxygen
What is a thrombocyte?
(Platelet) Small cell involved with the blood clotting process
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