by gcerri


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Bronfenbrenner's Theory of Ecological Development
Microsystem -parents, caregivers, siblings, teachers
Mesosystem - when two microsystems interact
Exosystem - indirect.  Death of parent, disability in sibling, etc.
Macrosystem - culture, religion, media
Chronosystem - passage of time
culture
Behavior patterns, beliefs and all other products of a group that are handed down from generation to generation
different processes in development
biological: puberty, menopause
cognitive: thought, intelligence, language (piaget)
socioemotional: relationships with others, emotions, personality (parents, partners, children)
nature vs. nature
relative contributions of biology and experience
Tabula Rasa
John Locke's theory of nature vs. nurture.  Born with a blank slate.  Experience writes your life. Fill children with good experience.
continuous vs. discontinuous development
is development gradual or is it more stage-like (freud, piaget, erikson)?
early vs. late experience
early intervention vs. later possiblities
"Genie" case
critical period.  brain plasticity.  these days we have a "sensitive period" (less stringent.
Preformationism
No special status was given to children before 1600s (dressed like mini adults)
original sin view
children come into the world as bad or evil, goal is to remove sin from child's life
innate goodness view
Rousseau.  children start off good. parents should let them grow naturally without too much parental pressure.
Contemporary perspectives of childhood
-children are active beings in their world
-childhood is an eventful and unique time rather than just a waiting period
-society has laws to uphold this (16 to drive, 21 to drink, juvenile court, compulsory education, etc.)
3 key periods of prenatal development
1. germinal: zygote attaches to uterine wall.  cells split into blastocyte and trophoblast.
2. embryonic: cell differentiation, organ formation, embryo has 3 layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm), trophoblast (placenta, umb. cord, and amnion)
3. fetal (growth and genitalia formed)
Teratogens
Alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome), caffeine (?), heroine (behavioral problems, tremors)
paternal influences
older father might be related to autism; smoking; etc
Maternal age
adolescent mothers and mothers over 30 (downs and low fertility) are at risk
Freud's 3 part structure to personality
id - impulses, unconscious
ego- help child deal with reality, executive branch, compromise
superego - moral compass, conscience
Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
want to reach a middle ground
1. oral (18 mos)- self-soothe, reduce tension
2. anal (1.5 - 3)- anal retentive (ocd-like) or anal explosive (messy)
3. phallic (3-6)- oedipal and electra complexes.  identification with same-sex parent.
4.  latency (6-pub.) - intellectual pursuits
5.  genital (ado.) - balance between love and work, independence vs. dep.
Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages
1. basic trust vs. mistrust (freud's oral) - overcoming stranger anxiety
2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt (freud's anal) - toilet training
3.  intiative vs. guilt (freud's phallic)
4. industry vs. inferiority (f's latency)
5.  identity vs. identity confusion (f's genital)
6. intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
7. generativity vs. stagnation (middle adult)
8. integrity vs. despair (old adulthood) - evaluation
Piaget's cognitive theory
1. sensorimotor, birth -2 yrs. (reflexes, motoric)
2. preoperational, 2-7 yrs. (egocentrism, represent thoughts symbollically)
3. concrete operational
4. formal operational (don't have to see it to solve it, hypothetical, logical thought, deductive reasoning)
social constructivism theory
-cognitive skills and patterns of thinking are the products of social institutions of the culture in which the individual grows up.
Vygotsky
Language + Thought: which comes first?
thought = nonverbal
language = initially nonintellectual
age 2: when thought and language meet. thought becomes verbal and speech irrational
information processing approach
How we process, store, transform, and retrieve information.  perceptual process and memory.
zone of proximal development
difference in a child’s capacity to solve a problem on his own, rather than with assistance.
suggests that parents\teachers are important for kid to reach potential.
ethological theory (lorenz)
innate nature. imprinting.
myths of puberty
don't start at one point in time, signs that one is going to hit puberty prenatally (eggs in female and erections for males in sleep), hormones do not act alone, not always a time of storm and stress
What is puberty?
rapid physical and hormonal changes
Adolescent sexuality
bridge between asexual child and sexual adult
amygdala vs. prefrontal cortex in puberty
amygdala (negative emotional states) is fully established.  prefrontal cortex is not yet developed (lack of rationality)
videogames
advantages (spatal\relational), disadvantages (modeling neg. behaviors)
adolescent egocentrism
1.  imaginary audience - others are as interested in you as you are in yourself.  contribute to self-conscious emotions
2.  personal fable - sense of uniqueness and invincibility (leads to risk-taking) not fully based on reality
Cognitive changes that improve critical thinking in adolescence
a.     increased speed of processing b.     wider range of knowledge in various domains c.     increased ability to construct new knowledge having more strategies to apply\attain knowledge
James Marcia's Model of Identity Development
identity achievement - solved crisis and made commitment to idea or occupation
identity moratorium - in crisis, but commitments are vague
identity foreclosure - make commitment but no crisis (parents tell you to be doctor, so you are), identity diffusion - no commitment or crisis (no interest in exploration.)
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