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1. What does NVRAM stand for ?
1. Nonvolatile random-access memory
2. Which type of memory stores the bootstrap code, which brings up the router when you first turn it on?
2. ROM

3. Where is a router's running configuration located?
3. RAM
4. Which type of memory stores the Cisco IOS images?
Flash memory
5. Which of the of the following command parameters would you execute to get a new DHCP address?
5. ipconfig / renew


To get new DHCP address, you must first release the old with ipconfig / release, then get a new one with ipconfig / renew
7. Convert decimal 225 to binary
7. 11100001
8. Convert decimal 57 to binary
8. 00111001
9. Convert 97.52.64.247 to binary
9. 01100001.00110100.01000000.11110111
10. Convert binary to 10101010 to decimal
10.
188
11. Convert binary 10101010 to decimal
11.
170
12. Convert binary
1000001.11000110.11011111.00101000
12.
65.198.223.40
13. Which of the following hex values represent 1 binary byte?
13. F0
14. Convert 0xE3 to decimal
14. 227

Multiply by 14.
14 x 16 = 224 + 3 = 227
15. Convert 0xF2 to binary
15. 11110010
16. Convert binary 10100101 to hex
16.
A5
17. Which of the following is a protocol that resides at the Internetwork layer of the TCP/IP model? (2)
17. BootP & ARP
18. Which layer of the OSI model does Telnet operate at?
18. Application
19. On which of the following OSI layers does TCP operate?
19. Transport
20. Which of the following protocols is connectionless?
20. IP

IP is connnectionless in that it does not require preagreement by the endpoints before data can be exchanged.
21. What type of cable would you use to connect a PC NIC to an RJ45 ethernet port of a Cisco 2600 series router?
21. Crossover
22. Which of the following cannot be performed when using a telnet session to a remote router?
22. Password recovery

Password recovery requires direct terminal access or modem access through the Console or AUX port.
23. Which  of the following popular applications are correctly associated  with their well know port numbers and transport protocol
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