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Exoticism
Use of melodies, rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands; common in romantic music.
Nationalism
Inclusion of folksongs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with
the composer's homeland; characteristic of romantic music.
Inclusion of folksongs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with
the composer's homeland; characteristic of romantic music.
Ludwig Von Beethoven
Classical Composer that bridged the gap between the Classical and Romantic periods.

Franz Schubert

Romantic Composer. Wrote Art Songs (Over 600-Including “The Erkling”) and Short Piano Pieces. Also
wrote Symphonies, String Quartets, Chamber Music for Piano and Strings, Masses and Operatic Compositions. Wrote most of
his compositions in his late Teens. Wrote Four Symphonies including the “Unfinished Symphony” which he never got to Hear it.
Romantic Composer.
Wrote Art Songs (Over 600-Including “The Erkling”) and Short Piano Pieces. 
Also wrote Symphonies, String Quartets, Chamber Music for Piano and Strings, Masses and Operatic Compositions. 
Wrote most of
his compositions in his late Teens. 
Wrote Four Symphonies including the “Unfinished Symphony” which he never got to Hear it.

Frederic Chopin

Wrote Exclusively for the Piano. Wrote Nocturnes, Mazurkas, and Polanaises (Stylized Polish
Dances), Preludes and Waltzes written for Salons rather than Concert Halls. His Fascination of playing laid in the Piano’s
“Beautiful Tone, Rhythmic Flexibility, Atmospheric use of the Pedal, and Poetic Subtleties of Dynamics”. Uses the Piano’s
Damper Pedal For Harmonic Effects (Used Original Harmonies), Made the Piano “Sing”.
Wrote Exclusively for the Piano. Wrote Nocturnes, Mazurkas, and Polanaises (Stylized Polish
Dances), Preludes and Waltzes written for Salons rather than Concert Halls. His Fascination of playing laid in the Piano’s
“Beautiful Tone, Rhythmic Flexibility, Atmospheric use of the Pedal, and Poetic Subtleties of Dynamics”. Uses the Piano’s
Damper Pedal For Harmonic Effects (Used Original Harmonies), Made the Piano “Sing”.
Polonaise
Composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance.
Program symphony
Symphony (A composition for orchestra in several movements) related to a story, idea, or scene, in which
each movement usually has a descriptive title; often found in romantic music. (Unlike typical symphonies, program symphonies are inspired and dramatically directed by extra-musical story lines or ideas).
Symphony (A composition for orchestra in several movements) related to a story, idea, or scene, in which
each movement usually has a descriptive title; often found in romantic music. (Unlike typical symphonies, program symphonies are inspired and dramatically directed by extra-musical story lines or ideas).
Opera
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists,
chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery.
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists,
chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery.
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Russian Composer (Romantic). Most famous Russian Composer. Started composing late in life, but
at a furious pace! His melodies are hailed as some of the best melodies in all Music! Wrote Symphonies, Vocal Works, Piano and Violin
Concertos, Ballets, 8-Operas. Wrote “1812-Overture”, “Romeo and Juliet” (Concert Overture), and “The Nutcracker Suite” (For Ballet).
Russian Composer (Romantic). Most famous Russian Composer. Started composing late in life, but
at a furious pace! His melodies are hailed as some of the best melodies in all Music! Wrote Symphonies, Vocal Works, Piano and Violin
Concertos, Ballets, 8-Operas. Wrote “1812-Overture”, “Romeo and Juliet” (Concert Overture), and “The Nutcracker Suite” (For Ballet).
Felix Mendelssohn
Wrote Program Music, used for expression, not Description (Can depict a ‘Mood’, ‘Emotion’ or ‘Atmosphere’). Well
Educated (Cultured), painter, Writer, Conversationalist (Spoke ‘4’ Languages!) Wrote “Overture to a Midsummer Night’s Dream” when he was 17-years Old.
Wrote Program Music, used for expression, not Description (Can depict a ‘Mood’, ‘Emotion’ or ‘Atmosphere’). Well
Educated (Cultured), painter, Writer, Conversationalist (Spoke ‘4’ Languages!) Wrote “Overture to a Midsummer Night’s Dream” when he was 17-years Old.
Concert Overture
Independent composition for Orchestra in One Movement, usually in Sonata Form, often found in the Romantic Period.
Hector Berlioz
Creator of New orchestral sounds. Very jealous of his orchestrations. Financed most of his own rehearsals and
performances. Dedicated “Symphonie Fantastique” to his beloved Harriet Smithson; English Shakespearean Actress. Uses contrasts in Sonorities,
Dynamics, Instrumental Ranges, Special Effects, Tempo Changes (Abrupt), used Orchestras (For his “Dramatic Symphonies”) consisting of
100 or more players. Most of his works are for Orchestra (And occasionally; Vocal Soloists and/or Choir). First Great Conductor.
Creator of New orchestral sounds. Very jealous of his orchestrations. Financed most of his own rehearsals and
performances. Dedicated “Symphonie Fantastique” to his beloved Harriet Smithson; English Shakespearean Actress. Uses contrasts in Sonorities,
Dynamics, Instrumental Ranges, Special Effects, Tempo Changes (Abrupt), used Orchestras (For his “Dramatic Symphonies”) consisting of
100 or more players. Most of his works are for Orchestra (And occasionally; Vocal Soloists and/or Choir). First Great Conductor.
Expressionism
Musical style stressing intense, subjective emotion and harsh dissonance,
typical of German and Austrian music of the early twentieth century.
Musical style stressing intense, subjective emotion and harsh dissonance,
typical of German and Austrian music of the early twentieth century.
Impressionism
Musical s tyle which s tresses tone color , atmosphere, and fluidity , typical of Debussy (Flour ished 1890’s & Ended; 1920) .s
Claude Debussy
French Composer (Impressionist). Linked the Romantic era with the Twentieth century.
Wrote “Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun” (1894). Only True “Impressionist” Composer, Highly Imitated.
Used Unusual Harmonies including; Whole-Tone, Pentatonic Scales and Chords with More than ‘4 ’ Notes in Succession.
Influenced by the Bell and Gong-like Music of Asia. Music Was Light and Transparent, Rarely Loud!
French Composer (Impressionist). Linked the Romantic era with the Twentieth century.
Wrote “Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun” (1894). Only True “Impressionist” Composer, Highly Imitated.
Used Unusual Harmonies including; Whole-Tone, Pentatonic Scales and Chords with More than ‘4 ’ Notes in Succession.
Influenced by the Bell and Gong-like Music of Asia. Music Was Light and Transparent, Rarely Loud!
Minimalist Music
Mus ic charac ter ized b y s teady pulse , c le ar tonali ty , and in s is te nt repetit ion
of shor t melo dic p at terns ; i ts dynamic level , tex ture, and harmo ny tend to s tay cons tant for fa ir ly
long s tretches of time, c reati ng a trancelike or hypno tic ef fec t ; developed in the 196 0s .
Mus ic charac ter ized b y s teady pulse , c le ar tonali ty , and in s is te nt repetit ion
of shor t melo dic p at terns ; i ts dynamic level , tex ture, and harmo ny tend to s tay cons tant for fa ir ly
long s tretches of time, c reati ng a trancelike or hypno tic ef fec t ; developed in the 196 0s .
Electronic Instrument
Instrument whose sound is produced, modified, or amplified by electronic means.
Instrument whose sound is produced, modified, or amplified by electronic means.
Absolute Music
Instrumental music having no intended association with a story, poem, idea, or scene; nonprogram music.
Charles Ives
North-American Composer. Compositions deeply rooted in Folk and Popular Music he knew when he was
young: Revival hymns, ragtime, Village Bands, Church Choirs, Patriotic and Barn Dances.
North-American Composer. Compositions deeply rooted in Folk and Popular Music he knew when he was
young: Revival hymns, ragtime, Village Bands, Church Choirs, Patriotic and Barn Dances.
Neoclassicism
Mus ical s ty le marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity , inspired by the
forms and sty listic features of eighteenth-century music , found in many work s from 1920 to 1950.
Mus ical s ty le marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity , inspired by the
forms and sty listic features of eighteenth-century music , found in many work s from 1920 to 1950.
Nocturne
In French, night piece; a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for piano solo.
Giuseppe Verdi
Italian Composer (Romantic). Most Popular (Italian) Opera Composer. Ardent Nationalist (Italy was Occupied
by Austria-People were not happy-for obvious reasons!). Wanted Italy Freed from Austrian Occupation and Dominium. In his
late 30’s composed: Rigolletto, Il Trovatore, La Traviata. Later Composed “Aida” to commemorate the opening of the Suez Canal
 Italian Composer (Romantic). Most Popular (Italian) Opera Composer. Ardent Nationalist (Italy was Occupied
by Austria-People were not happy-for obvious reasons!). Wanted Italy Freed from Austrian Occupation and Dominium. In his
late 30’s composed: Rigolletto, Il Trovatore, La Traviata. Later Composed “Aida” to commemorate the opening of the Suez Canal
Jazz
Music rooted in improvisation and characterized by syncopated rhythm, a steady bear and distive tone colors and preformance techniques.
M u s i c r o o t e d i n i m p r o v i s a t i o n a n d c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s y n c o p a t e d r h y t h m , a
s t e a d y b e a t , a n d d i s t i n c t i v e t o n e c o l o r s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e t e c h n i q u e s . J a z z w a s
d e v e l o p e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b y A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n M u s i c i a n s a n d
g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y
Dissonace
harsh, resolve
Consonace
soft, start
Polytonality
Approach to pitch organization using two or more keys at one time, often found in twentieth-century music
Improvisation
creation of music as it is played
Rock
First called rock and roll, a style of popular vocal music which developed in the 1950s, characterized by a hard, driving beat and
featuring electric guitar accompaniment and heavily amplified sound
First called rock and roll, a style of popular vocal music which developed in the 1950s, characterized by a hard, driving beat and featuring electric guitar accompaniment and heavily amplified sound
Primitivism
Evocation of primitive power through insistent rhyths and percussive sounds
Cool Jazz
Jazz style related to bebop but more relaxed in character and relying more heavily on arrangements developed around 1950
Swing Band
Typically, a large band made up of fourteen or fifteen musicians grouped in three sections: saxophones,
brasses, and rhythm. They play swing, a jazz style.
Typically, a large band made up of fourteen or fifteen musicians grouped in three sections: saxophones,
brasses, and rhythm. They play swing, a jazz style.
Bebop
Bop) Complex jazz style, usually for small groups, developed in the 1940s and meant for attentive listening
rather than dancing
Bop) Complex jazz style, usually for small groups, developed in the 1940s and meant for attentive listening
rather than dancing
Leonard Bernstein
North-American Composer and Conductor. Wrote for Broadway as well as Jazz-
Flavored Orches tral Works . Wrote “Wes t Side Story” (1957)
North-American Composer and Conductor. Wrote for Broadway as well as Jazz-
Flavored Orches tral Works . Wrote “Wes t Side Story” (1957)
William Grant Still
N o r t h - A m e r i c a n C o m p o s e r . T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y B l u e s -
O r i e n t e d , “ H a r l e m - R e n a i s s a n c e ” O r c h e s t r a l C o m p o s i t i o n s .
N o r t h - A m e r i c a n C o m p o s e r . T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y B l u e s -
O r i e n t e d , “ H a r l e m - R e n a i s s a n c e ” O r c h e s t r a l C o m p o s i t i o n s .
Giacomo Puccini
(The Bohemians). Used Verism: realism (Or “True to Life”). Also wrote “Tosca”, “Madame
Butterfly”, “Turandot”, “Manon Lescaut”, “I Pagliacci”, and “Cavalleria Rusticana”-Often using Exoticism
(The Bohemians). Used Verism: realism (Or “True to Life”). Also wrote “Tosca”, “Madame
Butterfly”, “Turandot”, “Manon Lescaut”, “I Pagliacci”, and “Cavalleria Rusticana”-Often using Exoticism
Twelve-tone system
Method of composing in which all pitches of a composition are derived from a special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones (tone row or set); developed by Schoenberg in the early 1920s.
Maurice Ravel
French Composer. Master of Tone Color. Composed “Bolero
Igor Stravinsky
R u s s i a n C o m p o s e r . Mo d e r n C l a s s i c s . Wr o t e a l mo s t e v e r y T y p e o f
Mu s i c . Wr o t e t h e “ T h e R i t e o f S p r i n g ” ( 1 9 1 3 ) .
Art Song
Setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poem's mood and imagery into music, common in the romantic period..s
Song Cycle
Group of art songs unified by a story line that runs through their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs; often found in romantic music.
Modest Mussorgsky
Russian Composer (Romantic) part of the “Russian-Five”. Army Officer, Played some
piano, but mostly self thought. Wrote The “Great Gate of Kiev”, From a set of ten pieces for piano-Named
“Pictures at an Exhibition”, Orchestrated by Maurice Ravel.
Gustave Mahler
Last Great Austrian (Romantic) Composer. Born In Bohemia. Influenced as Child by Peasant Songs, Dances and Military
Marches. Born Jewish but Converted to Catholicism at 37-years old. Later Became conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and
The Vienna Opera (Mostly known as a conductor during his lifetime; His Compositions were not well know until Fi fty Years
after his death!). Wrote Nine Symphonies (Started His tenth Symphony, But was not able to Finish it!). Used Voices in four of his
Symphonies. Wrote “Das Lied Von Der Erde” (“The Song of the World/ The Song of the Earth”). His Symphonies are Extremely Long
(Often over an Hour) and use Extreme shifts of Emotion, Mood, and Tempo Changes while they are permeated by the Spirit of his Songs.
Wrote the “Songs of the Wayfarer ”; A Cycle of Four Songs . Melodies are used in his 1s t. Symphony.
Johannes Brahms
German Composer (Romantic). Brought to acclaim by Robert Schumann. Conducted and
Reintroduced forgotten masterpieces (Collected Manuscripts). Worked on his 1st. symphony for 40-Years (Extremely self critical).
Wrote for all the traditional forms, except for Opera. His Symphonic sound is very Dark, Rich and Sonorous. His Symphony
Number 4, Based on the Baroque “Ground-Bass” (Or: Basso Ostinato-Variation form in which a musical idea in the bass is
repeated over and over while the melodies above it constantly change; common in Baroque music. Also Called Passacaglia),
Based on Theme from Bach’s Cantata No. 150, Composed in (An eclectic-hidden style) Theme and Variations. Also composed
the “German Requiem” Based on “How Lovely is thy Dwelling Place” from the Psalms of David; Old Testament-Bible.
Richard Wagner
Rabid German Nationalist Composer (Romantic). Did not play an Instrument, but studied Theory
(University-Level) for Three years. Composed and Conducted. Composed “The Ring Cycle” (“De r Ring des Nibelungen”-The
Ring of the Nibelung), a set of Four Operas (Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, Siegfried, Götterdämmerung) based on
Nordic Mythology, Which took him over a Quarter century to Finish (Wrote it to Promote his views on 19th Century Society). The
opening was hailed as the most important event of the century. Wrote his own Librettos, Based on Medieval-Germanic Legends and Myths.
Center of attention in his Operas (or Music Dramas-as he liked to call them) was the Orchestra, Not the Voice. Loved Brass and
Invented The Wagner Tuba (Brass). His Music is powerful, Special Singers to project over Dense Textures needed(Wagnerian Soprano,
Heroic Tenor, Ect.), which often used “Leitmotif”. His Harmonies are highly Chromatic and Dissonant, which led to the breakdown of tonality and
a New Musical Language in the 20th. Century. (Bridged the Gap between the Romantic and Modern Periods!)it
Arnold Schoenberd
V i e n n e s e C o mp o s e r ( S e r i a l i s t ) . D e v e l o p e d t h e “1 2 - T o n e S y s t e m ” .
Wr o t e “ P i e r r o t L u n a i r e ”À

Leitmotif

Short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, characteristic of the operas of Wagner.

Chromatic Harmony

Use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included
in the chromatic scale (which has twelve tones); often found in romantic music.Î1

Characteristics of the Twentieth CenturyPeriod

New approaches to the organization of Pitch and Sound, Liberal use of Percussion. 
Styles were widely varied and Composers drew from a wide source of styles. 
Non-Western Music Studied with greater
interest; specially Asian and African Music. 
Rediscovery of music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance Music. Tone Color Became More Important.
Dissonance becomes “Independent” of Consonance. Rhythm Became more Complex; Became more Irregular and Unpredictable. 
Rapid Changing
meters Used Often While Melodies also become more Unpredictable. 
Music influenced by the Long Playing Records, Radio and Television Sets, living Room became the New Concert Hall. 
Orchestras formed for the sole purpose of “Live Broadcasting” (Ex.: “NBC Orchestra Under A.
Toscaninni).n
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