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lactobaccilus
gram positive anaerobe
normal flora of vagina
microaerophilic
used to culture yogurt
characteristic gram stain
low pathogenicity
lactic acid waste product keeps vagina acidic
proprionibacterium
causative agent for acne
found in: oral cavity, skin, LI, conjunctiva
often thought to cause bacteremia because of sample conamination from skin (only actually 5%)
pleiomorphic nuclei (rods with clubbed/pointy ends) look beaded
gram positive
nosocomial infection of shunts
actinomyces
normal mucosal flora
causes chronic granulatomous lesions: cervico facial, lumpy jaw, draining sinuses, sulfur granules
A. israelia most common 75%
penicillin G
carbenicillin
chloramphenicol
peptostreptococcus
gram positive anaerobe
native to mucousal flora
bacteremia post-ob/gyn infections
rarely fatal
brain, breast, pulmonary single species colonies
often mixed infection
96% susceptible to b-lactams
veillonella
most freq. isolated gram neg cocci
normal fecal: v. parvula
normal oral: others...
disease: oral, head and neck, soft tissue
fusobacterium
gram negative rod
f. nucleatum can be sole infecting agent in pulmonary infections
f. necrophorum: very virulent, peritonsillar abscesses
lemierre's disease
caused by f. necrophorum
septic thrombophlebitus in int. jugular
emboli to lungs
occurs after upper resp infection
neck and head tenderness
porphrymonas
gram negative rod
unpigmented colonies
female genital tract infections (b-lactam resistant):
p. bivia
p. disiens
oral and pulmonary as well
prevotella
gram negative rods
oft mixed microbial infections
normal oral, GI, urogentical flora
infections include:head, neck lower resp. brain, lung, empyema, PID, tubo-ovarian disease
gingivitis - peridontis
bacteroides
normal oral, GI, genitourinary flora
very virulent, common anaerobe
intraabdominal abscess from diverticulites
bacteremia
endocarditis
skin
gangrene, nec. fasc. cellulitis
clostridium dificil treatment
vancomycin and metronidazole
campylobacteria treatment
antibiotics: erythromycin
already resistant to fluoroquinolones
h. pylori treatment
omeprazole - PPI
peptin - antimicrobial in stomach
antibiotic - metrozinadole - disrupts DNA
h. pylori pathogenicity
enters stomach, works its way to mucin layer via flagella
secretes urease which hydroliyzes stomach urea ot CO2 and NH4
adheres to epithelial cells via BabA
PMN, lymphocytes come but can't do too much bc h. pylori can survive intracellularly and resist phagocytosis
causes IL-8 secretion, PAF secretion (increases gastric acid production), apopsosis of gastric cells
legionella serotypes
serotype 1 causes 50% of disease
serotype 6 causes 10%
legionella pathogencity
taken up by phagosome
bac prevent fusion of phagosome with lysosome
surround phagosome with ribosome-laden ER structures
legionella virulence factors
Mip - macrophage inefectivity promoter
Type IV secretion system
proteases, hemolysins, phospholipases
legionella diagnosis
rapid flow assay for serotype 1
gold standard is culture on BCYE
legionella treatment
macrolides, fluoroquinolones
mycobacteria ulcerans diagnosis
ziehl-nelson (ZN) staining for acid fast bacilli extracellularly
6-8 weeks for culture
PCR staining for IS2404 is most sensitive
burul ulcer treatment
m. ulcerans
rifampin and streptomycin
NTM diagnosis
histoloy (acid fast stain)
biochemical testing
high performance lipid assays
molecular probes
DNA sequence of 16srRNA
gold standard for bordatella diagnosis
regan-lowe medium
bordatella bronchiseptica
kennel cough in dogs
upper respiratory
heaemophilis ducreyi
causes chancroid on penis
hemopholis influenza treatment
b-lactamases are common
usually will want to use cephalosporins
moraxella
acute otitis media
sinusitis
pnuemonia post COPD
NOT prone to cause bacteremia but is still serious 50% death rate
cornyobacteria diptheria
pathogenesis:
diptheria is the only one with the diptheria toxin - A-B type toxin that activates elongation factor 2
starts in pharynx then goes to heart, nerves, kidneys
ecg changes insignificant
toxin encodede in the beta phage
non-toxin diptheria is skin condition
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