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a.  Alpha Proteobacteria
Includes Phototrophs, Pathogens, and plant symbionts
Acetic Acid alpha Proteobacteria
Shape:  Flagelated Rods
Type:   Aerobic Respiration
  (oxidize alchohols to yield organic acids

Examples
Acetobacter Xylinum-- can synthesize cellulose
Rhizobium Alpha Proteobacteria and Relatives
Type: Aerobic Heterotrophs
Shape:  Tumors
Eg:  Rhizobium Sinorhizobium
Rhodobacter Alpha Proteobacteria
Type:  Autotrop (anyoxygenic photosynthesis)

Called: (purple non sulfur bacteria
Rickettsias Alpha Proteobacteria
Type:  Obligate
Shape: Small rods or Cocci
Eg: Ricketsia Prowazekii--causes typhus
 B) Rickettsia rickettsii--causes rocky mountain fever.
b.  Beta Proteobacteria
Generally aerobic bacteria
-aerobic resp
-chemoautotrophy
-photosynthetic purple nonsulfer bacteria
-few pathogens
Nitrosomonas Beta Proteobacteria
Type:  Chemoautotroph
Eg: Nitrosomonas - Carry out nitrosification

-Discovered by Sergei Winogradsky
Sheathed Beta Proteobacteria
Type:   aerobic heterotrophs
Shape: Filamentous Rods

Eg: Lepothrix--can oxidize iron which precipitates on the sheathe
Burkholderia Beta Proteobacteria
Type:   Aerobic heterotroph
Shape: Rod Shaped

eg: Burkholderia cepacia--causes pneumonia opertunisticly

-Bordetella pertussis--cause pertussis (whooping cough)
Nesseria Beta Proteobacteria
Type:   Aerobic
Shape: diploCocci

eg: Neisseria gonorrheoa

-Neisseria Meningitidis
Gamma-Proteobacteria
--most well studied
--includes enteric bacteria
--both respirations
--fermintation,
--photosynthesis
--chemoautotrophy
Enteric Gamma Bacteria
Type:   faculative aerobes
     -fermination also

Shape: rods

eg: mixed acid fermentors
   -Butanediol fermentors
 
*Mixed acid fermentors
eg: Escherichia
    -Salmonella (S. Enterrica)
*Butanediol Fermentors
eg: Enterobacter--can be an opportunistic pathogen. Urinary Track Infections.
  • Klebsiella-common in soil and water
  • K. Pneumonia--causes pneumonia and UTI.
       -opportunistic also
Pseudomonads Gamma Proteobacteria
Type: aerobic heterotrophs
-NO FERMINTATION
Shape: rods w/ Polar Flagella
-Catalayse Positive, Oxidase Positive

eg: Pseudomonas aeruginosa--studied for biofilm production. opportunistic pathogen that causes cystic fibroses
Vibrio and Photobacterium Proteobacteria
Type: Faculative Aerobes
    -Fermintation
Shape: rod shapes, curved (vibrio)

-Cat. pos./ oxi. pos.

eg: Vibrio Cholerae--causes cholera

V. parahaemolyticus & v. vulnificus--
cause food poisoning from seafood

V. Fisheri--quorom sensing
Purple Sulfer Gamma Proteobacteria
Type: Anoxygenic Photosynthesis
eg:Chromatium
Sulfer Oxidizing Gamma Proteobacteria
Type: Chemoautotroph


Acidiothiobacillus
  1. A. thiooxidans--oxidizes sulfur
  2. A. Ferrooxidans--oxidzes Fe and sulfur.  Can grow on pyrite. Can be used to release metals during mining.  Acetic waste product.
..eg:Beggiota--oxidizes H2S and thiosulfate for energy, but uses organic carbon instead of fixing CO2 (Mixotrophy). Found in wetlands.
Delta Proteobacteria
They are aerobic or anaerobic
Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Delta Proteobacteria
Type: obligate Anaerobes

eg: Desulfobacter, Desulvibrio--using sulfate as electron acceptor

Desulfurella--S as terminal e- acceptor

Geobacter Metallireducens--can use Fe as the terminal e- Accpetor
Bdellovibrio Delta Proteobacteria
Shape: Small comma, spirally
-prey on gram negative
Myxobacteria Delta Proteobacteria
Type: aerobic heterotroph
Shape: Rod
     -glide motile
eg.  Myxococcus xanthus--model organism for studying development and evolution.  produce chemicals that have medical use.
Epison- Proteobacteria
-Motile symbionts
Shape: spiral

eg.  Campylobacter jejuni--water. digestive tracts of birds. cause food poisoning and bloody diharea. affects young

eg. Helicobacter phylori-is closely related--causes gastritus and ulcers. (Barry Marshall)
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