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Phylum II:  The Firmicutes
  • <50% GC Content in
  • Most have Gram Positive Cell Wall
  • Can be divided into Spore Forming and Non Sporeforming
Spore Forming Firmicutes
  1. Bacillus
  2. Clostridium
  3. Heliobacteria
  • aerobic respiration
  • fermintation
  • anoxygenic photosynthesis
Bacillus Spore Forming Firmicules
  • Use aerobic resp
eg. Bacillus Thuringiensis
     Bacillus anthracis
     Bacillus Cereus
Clostridium Spore Forming Firmicules
  • Aerobic
eg.  Clostridium difficile
      Clostridium botulinum
      Clostridium tetani
   Clostridium                    perfringens
Heliobacteria Spore Forming Firmicutes
  • do not stain gram pos
  • type: anoxygenic photosynthesis
  • photoheterotrophy
  • fermintation
  • carry out N fixation
Non Spore Forming Firmicutes
  1. Staphylococcus
  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria
  3. Mollicutes (Mycoplasma)
  • Shape--Cocci
Staphylococcus Non-Spore Firmicutes
Type: Faculative aerobes
Shape: Cocci

eg. Staph Aureus- pathogen cause boils and pimples, pneumonia, meningitis

eg. staph epiderm
Lactic Acid Bacteria Non Spore Firmicutes
  • Type-fermintation
  • Shape-rods or cocci
  • Heterofermative-
  • Homofermative
eg.streptococcus mutans--found in mouth

eg. Lactococcus-used to make buttermilk

eg. lactobacillus- used in yogurt and sauerkraut

eg. lactobacillus brevis-common cause of beer spoilage

eg. Listeria monocytogenes-can grow at cold temps. food poisoning.
Mollicutes Non Spore Forming
  • no cell wall
  • change shapes
eg. Mycoplasma genitalium-can cause Urethra infections
-first genome sequenced

eg. Mycoplasma pneumonia- can cause pneumonia

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