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Personal property can be:
Personal property can be alienated, hypothecated, or be changed into real property.
Upon receiving his deed, the purchaser finds this statement in the deed: "Title subject to a recorded deed of trust in the amount of $12,000, current taxes, covenants, conditions, and restrictions in a declaration of restrictions recorded in Book 41483 Page 421 Official Records and an easement in favor of Pacific Telephone Corporation affecting said land for purposes of poles and conduits." From an analysis of the facts, which of the following is a correct statement?
The title is encumbered with a deed restriction. A utility easement is an easement in gross, not a restriction in gross. Answer (c) is the only correct statement. Taxes create a specific lien until paid.
Whether an item is a fixture is important when land is bought or sold or when a lease expires. Of the following, which is a correct statement concerning fixtures?
The fact that an item is permanently attached to real property does not in all cases indicate that the item is a fixture. 
Fixtures are personal property that has been attached to the land so as to become a part of the land, thus making them real property. One exception, however, is trade fixtures are always personal property no matter how attached. Answers (a), (b), and (c) are all incorrect statements.
The words "bailment" and "laches" are used in real estate. Bailment is which of the following?
A possessory interest in personal property as security for the performance of an act
Three of the four following real estate terms are closely associated. Which of the four terms does not belong with the group?
Claim.  Individuals claim many things, but they are not necessarily liens. A deed of trust and judgment are liens.
The recording of a lease is usually paid for by the:
The lessee is the person that receives an estate for years and may want to record the lease as a matter of record. Keep in mind, the person who benefits from the recording pays for the recording.
The Real Estate Commissioner's Subdivision Final Public Report expires:
Five years from the date of the issuance of the report.  Matter of law, unless there is a material change.
The minimum crawl hole must be:
18 inches by 24 inches.  A crawl hole gives a person access to the crawl space under the house, which is used to access plumbing and electrical connections under a house.
Considering the minimum building standards within a city, the state housing law is enforced by:
local building inspector.  Local building inspectors enforce the construction regulations while local health officers enforce the occupancy and sanitation regulations.
Which of the following would be a freehold estate?
Estate in fee.
Under the law, there are certain instruments that are not effective against mechanic's liens. Which of the following would be effective against a mechanic's lien?
Notice of non-responsibility
Mr. Land owned two pieces of property and sold one parcel bordering on the road to Ms. Crow, reserving in the deed an easement for ingress and egress to and from the remaining real property for himself. After 5 years of non-use, Land attempted to use the easement, but was prohibited from doing so by Crow. A court would rule in this case that:
the easement was still valid since it had been created by deed. Only an easement acquired by prescription may be lost through non-use.
Three of the following are alike. Which one which does not fit with the others?
Grant deed.  A grant deed is not an encumbrance. The other three are encumbrances.
A lease beginning March 1, 1994, and to terminate April 30, 1994, is:
an estate for years.  Any leasehold for a specified term, no matter how short the duration, is an estate for years.
A lien:
may be general or specific on real or personal property.  Mortgages and deeds of trust are voluntary liens. A lien is a money encumbrance. A restriction is a non-money encumbrance.
A fee simple estate is most likely to be a:
maximum interest obtainable.  Most likely is a fee simple absolute which is the maximum interest obtainable. If it were a fee simple defeasible, the title could be defeated which is not the maximum interest obtainable.
For speculative purposes, an owner of land divided it into eight parcels in 1991. He sold two lots in 1991, two lots in 1992, took an option to purchase on one lot in 1993, and sold the remaining lots in 1994. When was he legally classified as a subdivider?
1991.  The date of subdividing was before any sales took place.
The holder of which of the following interests would have the least protection of his interests?
A quit claim deed, unrecorded.  There are no implied warranties with this type of deed. A quit claim deed is generally used to clear some cloud on the title and, if not recorded, it would not serve this purpose.
Which of the following terms is most commonly used in California in reference to liens against real property?
Specific. Statutory liens for taxes and liens such as mortgages, deeds of trust, and mechanic's liens are all specific.
Blanket Encumbrance
When more than one lot is used as security under one loan, it is considered to be a blanket encumbrance. One lot only could be used as security for the loan. Using more than one constitutes a blanket encumbrance.
Penalty for a condition vs. covenant
A charge imposed on real property is called a(n):
lien.  A lien can be described as a charge on real property.
unlocated easement
When four persons own one piece of real estate in joint tenancy, they:
have one title.  All joint tenants share one title.
A wife recorded a declaration of homestead on the community property without her husband's signature. Which of the following exemptions would the couple receive?
The law permits the wife to declare a homestead exemption on 1) her separate property, 2) the husband's separate property, and 3) the community property, all without the signature or consent of her husband. The amount of the homestead is $75,000 for an individual. It is $100,000 if the homestead is a community property interest. [Code of Civil Procedure, Article 4, Section 704.730(a)]
The State Housing Act:
State Housing Law outlines the minimum construction and occupancy requirements for dwellings (per Health and Safety Code Section 17910, et. seq.).
How is a private restriction enforced?
Injunction.  The penalty for a breach of a private restriction is usually money damages or an injunction. An injunction is a court order forcing a person to do or not do an act, such as violating a private restriction.
In which way can a corporation not hold title to real property with another person or entity?
Joint tenancy.  Since a corporation is a legal person and will never die, it cannot hold title as a joint tenant with another. There can never be a right of survivorship with a corporation if the corporation is never going to die. If the corporation holds title by itself, it is in severalty, but, if held with another, it can be in common or in partnership.
What is the general purpose of a building code?
Provide minimum construction requirements.  The general purpose of a building code is to provide minimum construction standards.
Under the provisions of the Interstate Subdivided Lands Act, can the buyer may rescind his offer within specified time limits, if he buys:
land projects. The law allows a buyer 14 days after signing a contract to purchase property in a land project to rescind the offer, with a full refund of any money paid.
The Street Improvement Act of 1911 allows how long to pay for an assessment before it goes to bond?
30 days, not 1 month.
For many years, the Cordero family had permission to graze sheep on the neighboring land. Immediately after the neighbor sold the land, the new owner fenced in the land and padlocked the gate. What can the Cordero family do?
Do nothing.  The Corderos grazed sheep with the permission of the previous owner. Therfore, they have not established adverse possession. The new owner does not have to grant them access to the property, unless they have a written contract giving them the grazing rights.
Ms. John gives a life estate to her sister for the life of Charlie, her sister's friend. The life tenant dies. What interest does Ms. John hold in the property?
Fee simple estate.  During Charlie's life, Ms. John has a fee simple subject to a reversionary interest. In addition, a reversion occurs automatically upon the death of the life tenant. Therefore, upon the sister's death, the reversionary interest ends.
"A" receives a life estate for the life of "X." "A" dies before "X." The estate:
vests in the heirs of "A."  The estate vests in the heirs of "A" until "X" dies at which time the estate will revert to the original grantor.
A corporation may take title to real property in severalty
A telephone company places poles and strings wire across privately owned land. This would be an example of a(n):
encumbrance.  This would be an example of an easement in gross, which is an encumbrance.
Annual crops produced for sale.
Growing crops that are cultivated annually for sale, and orchards in a commercial grove are called emblements. Emblements (the crops) are personal property, not the trees of plants they grow on.
Permission to use a property which may be revoked at any time.
A lien is a type of encumbrance that involves a money claim against the title.
A partnership may hold title to real property in:
Under the Uniform Partnership Act, a partnership can hold title to real property in the name of the partnership, holding by tenancy in partnership, and vested in a trustee (third party) for the partnership.
Remainder interest vs reversionary interest
The Real Estate Commissioner has primary regulatory authority over subdivision matters concerning:
financial arrangements to insure the completion of community facilities. The Commissioner regulates aspects concerning the sale of subdivided lands to prevent fraud, including monies for promised improvements. He does not concern himself with the physical improvements.
What is the primary tool used by a planning commission?

A planning commission is an official agency usually organized on the city, county, or regional level to develop a master (General) plan which is the basis of and sets all community development decisions (land use proposals). The land use proposals outlined in a General Plan are implemented in many ways - zoning being the best known and most frequently used tool.
Elements of time, relationship, and interest are most relevant to:
community property.  No relationship required in joint tenancy or tenants in common. Elements of joint tenancy are possession, interest, time, and title. The only element required in a tenancy in common is possession.
An owner of a single family residence located in a rural area may lease the home for:
99 years. Agricultural land can only be leased for 51 years. All other land can be leased for 99 years. Rural land would not necessarily be agricultural land.
Property owner Peter had an easement for ingress and egress through the property of his adjacent neighbor, Jonah. If Peter purchases Jonah's property, what will happen to Peter's easement through that property?
It will terminate by merger.  When two properties are owned by the same person, any easements that may have existed are terminated by the merger.
Bench mark
To "landmark" a spot that has a known position, surveyors use what is called a "bench mark."
Under the Map Act, control of subdivisions is made the concern of the:
local city and county authorities.
A husband may lease real community property without his wife's consent:
up to one year.  If for more than one year he must have his wife's consent.
Less Than Freehold Estates:  
Leasehold interests.
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