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What is Anatomy?
The branch of science that studies the structure of the body.
What is Physiology?
The branch of science that describes how the body works, or functions.
What is Pathophysiology?
A branch of science that describes the consquences of the improper functioning of the body parts.


How a body part functions when a person has a disease.
What are the 6 levels of structural complexity, or organization?
1. Chemical (atoms which form molecules)
2. Cells or cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organs
5. Organ system
6. Organism
What is Homeostasis?
The literal translation is to stay the same.  It is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing external environment.
What do Superior / Inferior mean?
- Superior is a part that is above another part of cloder to the head
- Inferior is a part located below another part or closer to the feet
What do Anterior (vental) / Posterior (doral) mean?
- Anterior means toward the front surface or in front of a part
- Posterior means toward the back surface or behind a part
What do Medial / Lateral mean?
- Medial is toward the midline of the body
- Lateral is away from the midline of the body (extremity?)
What do Proximal / Distal mean?
- Proximal is a part which is attached more closely to the trunk
- Distal mean the attachments is farther away from the trunk
(Used to compare the distance of 2 parts from the trunk)
What do Superficial / Deep mean?
- Superficial is a part on or near the surface of the body
- Deep means the part is away from the surface of the body
What do Central / Peripheral mean?
- Central is a part located in the center
- Peripheral means away from the center
What are the planes, or sections, of the body?
- Sagittal
- Frontal
- Transverse
What is the Sagittal (median) plane?
- It divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions.
- The division down the midline is a midsagittal section.
What is the Frontal (coronal) plane?
- It divides the body into Anterior (ventral) and Posterior (Doral) portions.
- The division is made widthwise across the head and downward.
What is the Transverse plane?
- It divides the body horizontally, creating upper (Superior) and lower (Inferior) bodies.
- This is also called a cross section.
Abdominal region and surface?
Trunk just below the ribs on anterior.
Antecubital region and surface?
Area in front of the elbow on anterior.
Brachial region and surface?
Arm on the anterior.
Cephalic region and surface?
The head on the anterior.
Buccal region and surface?
Cheek area between gun and cheek on anterior.
Cranial region and surface?
Nearer the head on the anterior.
Digital region and surface?
Fingers and toes on the anterior.
Femoral region and surface?
Thigh area on anterior and posterior.
Flank region and surface?
Fleshy area along each side between lower ribs and top of hip bones on anterior.
Cervical region and surface?
Neck region on anterior.
Oral region and surface?
The mouth on anterior.
Orbital region and surface?
Area around the eye on anterior.
Axillary region and surface?
Armpit on anterior.
Inguinal region and surface?
Groin, or where the thigh meets the trunk on anterior.
Patellar region and surface?
Front of the knee over kneecap on anterior.
Sternal region and surface?
Middle of the chest / breastbone area on anterior.
Umbilical region and surface?
Navel or abdomen on anterior.
Pubic region and surface?
Genital area on anterior.
Gluteal region and surface?
Buttocks on posterior.
Lumbar region and surface?
Lower back between ribs and hips on posterior.
Occipital region and surface?
Back of head on posterior.
Pedal region and surface?
The foot on anterior.
Plantar region and surface?
Sole of the foot on anterior.
Popliteal region and surface?
The area behind the knee on the posterior.
Caudal region and surface?
Near to the lower region of the spinal column (near the tailbone) on posterior.
Deltoid region and surface?
Rounded area of the shoulder closest to the upper arm on posterior.
Scapular region and surface?
Shoulder blade area on posterior.
What are the 2 main cavities of the body?
The dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity.
What is the dorsal cavity?
- It is located toward the back of the body.
- Separated into the cranial cavity and the spinal (vertabral) cavity.

What are the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity?
- Cranial cavity is located inside the skull and contains the brain.
- Spinal, or vertabral, cavity extends downward from the cranial cavity and surrounded by bony vertabrae; it contains the spinal cord.
- These 2 areas form one continuous space.
What is the ventral cavity?
- It is located toward the front of the body.
- It encompasses the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
What is the breakdown of the thoracic cavity?
- It contains the mediastinum, which holds the heart (in the pericardial cavity), esophogus, trachea, thymus gland and large blood vessels of the heart.
- It also contains the pleural cavities, which hold the lungs on either side of the mediastinum.
What is the abdominopelvic cavity?
It is subdivided into the abdominal cavity and the lower portion is the pelvic cavity.
What's the breakdown of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities?
Abdominal holds the stomach, most of the intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen and kidneys.
- Pelvic has the rest of the intestines, rectum, bladder and internal reproductive parts.
What are the 4 quadrents of the abdominalpelvic cavity?
- Right upper quadrent (RUQ)
- Left upper quadrent (LUQ)
- Right lower quadrent (RLQ)
- Left lower quadrent (LLQ)
- NOTE that these are designated as the patient's left and right side.
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