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Bone-Connective Tissue made of:

Specialized cells + matrix which is made of protein fibers and ground substance
Bone Specialized cells are:
Osteoblast, Osteocyte, Osteoclast, Osteoid

The immature cells that create the bone matrix

The mature, cells that allow gas/nutrients to pass through tissue
The cells that breakdown bone matrix and reabsorbs bone tissue

Organic components of the bone matrix (collagen fibers, calcium salts, water)

The 2 types of bone
Compact bone, Spngy bone
Basic unit of mature compact bone

Characteristics of compact bone

Outer bone tissue, Highly organized, Rigid, Weight -bearing
Characteristics of spongy bone
Lines the marrow cavities, surrounds medullary cavity which contain marrow. Not stable
6 Bone classifications
Long bones, short bones, sesamoid bones, flat bones, pneumatized bones, irregular bones
Ex. of Long bone
Humerous, Femur
Ex. of short bones
carpals, tarsals
Ex. of flat bones
parietal bones, coronal bones
Ex. of irregular bones
Scapula, Sphenoid, vertebrae
Ex. of pneumatized bone
sphenoid because it contains air pockets
Ex. of sesamoid bone

10 Components of long bones

Diaphysis, Distal Epiphysis, Proximal Epiphysis, Ephiseal line, medullary cavity, compact bone, spongy bone, articular cartilage, periosteum, endosteum
Shaft which COntains medullary cavity which stores adipose tissue
End further from attachment site whose medullary cavity contains red bone marrow
Distal epiphysis
End of bone closest to attachment site
Proximal epiphysis

Layers of bone matrix

Chambers that Contain osteocytes, sandwiched between layers of matrix
Disc of hylaine cartilage and is growth plate
Epiphyseal line
 contains yellow bone marrow with adipose tissue
Medulary cavity
Outer surface
Compact bone
Lines bone cavity
Spongy bone
Has Hyaline cartilage at articulation site
Articular cartilage

Periosteum characteristcs

Thick fibrous layer of CT that surrounds external surface of bone except articular surfaces; provides route of all vessels/nerves
Charact. of 2 layers of Periosteum
fibrous outer layer and cellular inner layer
Charact. of Endosteum
  • Cellualr membrane lining spongy bone spicules
  • within marrow cavities
2 types of bone growth
Appositional growth
Interstitial growth

Bone growth that increases width

Bone growth that increases length
5 Structures of compact bone
Osteon, haversian canal, lamellae, canaliculi, osteocytes
Osteon looks like under microscope
A target
Haversian canal looks like under microscope
bull's eye of target

Lamellae looks like

the rings or layers of the matrix
Canaliculi are
the canals that link the lacunae (ports) together throughout matrix
Structures of spongy bone
Spicules, Osteocytes, osteoblasts, Endosteum Marrow cavity

Tiny needlelike bits of bone
Looks like

The blob

Perimeter of the spicule

2 types of bone ossification
Intramembranous and endochondral
Intramembranous ossification occurs in
flat and sesamoid bone developement
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