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Biopolar Disorder is ____ common than depression
less
Bipolar Disorder is more common in Men or Women?
Neither
differences in prevalence between ethnic groups?
No Difference
Biopolar D/O usually develops in
Late Teens/ Early Adulthood
Is substance abuse common with Bipolar disorder?
Yes
Bipolar Disorder has some correlation with...
Creativity
Biological Causes for Bipolar Disorder (5)
1. Genetic
2. Neurotransmiters
3. Brain Structure
4. Hormones
5. Early Childhood Stress
You are 2 to 3 times more likely to get depression if you have a close relative with depression, same for bipolar, but no crossing of this tendency between depression and bipolar.. True or False?
True
genetic predisposition for bipolar disoorder is _____________–many genes interact to produce the predisposition
Multi-factorial
monoamines
Nonepinephrine, Serotonin, Dopamine in the lymbic system.
Too many Monoamines causes
Mania
abnormalities are state-dependent which means its based on...
life circumstances and drug use
for depression, low activity in the prefrontal cortex leads to what?
Reduction of Goal directed activity
for depression, low activity in the anterior cingulate leads to what?
Anhedonia
for depression, low activity in the hippocampus shrinks it and leads to what?
memory loss
for depression, an enlarged amygdala leads to what?
Reumination of depressing thoughts
All physical symptoms return to normal with treatment.. True or False?
True
cortisol (stress hormone) in chronic excess in depression, affecting monoamine functioning causes what?
extreme responses to small stressors.
_____ are correlated with neurobiological abnormalities of mood disorders
Childhood Traumas
in animals, lack of ____ leads to abnormalities
Maternal Care
Bipolar Disorder is mostly biological, but can be triggered by
Stressful Social Situations
Bipolar Disorder can be better managed by what?
Improving Stress Management Skills
Behavioral Causes of Depression (5) 
1. not learned affective coping skills
2. Modeling around others depressed
3. Reinforcements
4. Loss of positive reinforcements
5. learned helplessness
Cognitive Causes of Depression (2)
1. Beck's Cognitive Triad
2. Reformulated Learned Helplessness
Beck's Cognitive Triad... Negative views of what?
1. The Self
2. The World
3. The Future
Reformuated Learned Helplessness are persons who attribute bad things to causes that are what? (3)
1. Internal
2. Stable
3. Global

Experience learned helplessness and hopelessness
depressive realism exists in which...
A moderately depressed person makes accurate predictions on his ablities and how they will perform
Ruminative response styles- some persons focus on __________ and don’t attempt to do anything about them
How they feel
Psychodymanic causes of depression states that ____ turned inward toward a part of self that has incorporated a "love object" because we are too afraid to show anger toward the actual object (mother)
anger
Biological Treatment for Depression (3)
1.TCA's- Tricyclic Antidepressants
2. MAOI's- Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
3. SSRI's- Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 
TCA's- Tricyclic Antidepressants
either decrease uptake of norepinephrineand serotonin or increase receptor responsiveness
TCA's Side Effects (7)
1. Constipation
2. Decreased Urination
3. Dry Mouth
4. Decreased Sex Drive
5. Blurred Vision
6. Excessive Sweating
7. Very Easy to Overdose
MAOI's- Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Prevents Monoamine Oxidase from working

* Marplan, Nardil and Parnate
MAOI's Side Effects  (7+3)
All of those in the TCA's plus

1. Many potentially deadly interactions with food and other drugs
2. Liver Damage
3. Weight Gain
SSRI's- Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Includes Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro, Paxil

Takes 4 weeks to work
SSRI's Side Effects (6)
fewer side effects
1. Decreased Sex Drive
2. Increased Risk of Suicide
3. Nausea
4. Jittery
5. Anger
6. Decreased Appetite

Drugs for Depression helps about ___% of those who use them
60
ElectroConvulsive Therapy
Shocking the brain helps 60% of the time but has a 85% relapse rate
rTMS- Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
repeated, high intensity magnetic pulses focused on particular brain structures. Very few side effects and produces log term changes
VNS- Vagus Nerve Stimulation
30-40% of people who do the opperation have results. Its a last resort and doctors put a pacemaker in the left chest wall to stimulate the Vagus nerve.
Light Therapy
Used for Seasonal Affective Disorders

1 week under bright lights gives complete relief
Biological Treatment for Biopolar Disoder (2)
1. Lithium
2. Other Medications
Lithium for Bipolar Treatment stabilizes neurotransmitter levels but...
half of users develop tolerance  within 3 years, also its difficult to find the right dosage and is easy to Overdose on.
Other medication for Bipolar disorder are what?
Anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers.
Psychological Treatments for Depression (3)
1. Behavioral
2. Cognative/Behavioral
3. Psychodynamic
Behavioral Treatments For Depression (3)
1. Identify and change reinforcers for depressive behavior
2. Become more physically active
3. Relaxation excercises
Cognitive/ Behavioral Treatments for Depression (4)
1.Solve and Change Irrational Thoughts about the problems
2. Keep thought diary and challenge IB's
3. Practice Assertiveness
4. More Effective than Drugs (takes 12 weeks)
Psychodynamic Treatments for Depression
1.Watch for transference
2. Watch for themes in dreams and memories of childhoof
3. Very Effecive but works slowly
4. Share thoughts with clients so that they have insigt on their thoughts
________ works best but either approach creates the same brain changes
Drugs and Counceling
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