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The historical movement associated with the statement "The whole may exceed the sum of its parts" is
Gestalt Psychology
Figures tend to be perceived as whole, complete objects, even if spaces or gaps exist in the representation, thus demonstrating the principle of
The figure-ground relationship has demonstrated that
the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception
When we stare at an object, each eye receives a slightly different image, providing a depth cue known as
retinal disparity
As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not perceive the objects as changing.  This is part of the phenomenon of
perceptual constancy
Which of the following is NOT a monocular depth cue?
retinal disparity
Figure is to ground as _________ is to __________.
flower; grass
The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we
interpret sensory stimuli
Which of the following influences perception?
  • Biological maturation
  • the context in which stimuli are perceived
  • expectations
The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called:
Which of the following statements is consistent with the Gestalt theory of perception?
The mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions
The phenomenon that refers to the ways in which an individual''s expectations influence perception is called:
perceptual set
According to the philosopher ______, we learn to perceive the world.
The phenomenon of size constancy is based on the close connection between an object''s perceived __________ and its perceived ___________.
Size; distance
The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are moving is:
relative motion
Each time you see your car, it projects a different image on the retinas of your eyes, yet you do not perceive it as changing.  This is because of:
perceptual constancy
The term gestalt means
Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is
All of the following are laws of perceptual organization EXCEPT
retinal disparity

dot-dot      dot-dot      dot-dot

You probably perceive the diagram above as three separate objects due to the principle of
Although carpenter Smith perceived a briefly viewed object as a screwdriver, police officer Wesson perceived the same object as a knife.  This illustrates that perception is guided by:
perceptual set
The fact that a white object under dim illumination appears lighter than a gray object under bright illumination is called:
lightness constancy
When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller retinal image will be perceived as being
more distant than the other object
Concluding her presentation on sensation and perception, Kelly notes that:
sensation and perception blend into one continuous process
AS her friend Milo walks toward her, Noriko perceives his size as remaining constant because his perceived distance ___________ at the same time that her retinal image of him ______________.
decreases; increases
In the absence of perceptual constancy
objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed
How do we perceive a pole that partially covers a wall?
As nearer
An artist pains a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of trees converge at the top of the canvas.  Which cue has the artist used to convey distance?
linear perspective
Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ___________ due to the principle of _________.
farther away; relative height
Your friend tosses you a frisbee.  You know that it is getting closer instead of larger because of
shape constancy
Studying the road map before her rip, Colleen had no trouble following the route of the high-way she planned to travel.  Colleen''s ability illustrates the principle of:
An organized whole (our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes).
The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
depth perception
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
visual cliff
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance - the greater the difference between the two images the closer the object
retinal disparity
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes
binocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
monocular cues
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
perceptual constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wave-lengths reflected by the object
color constancy
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field (like when we get a new pair of glasses)
perceptual adaptation
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
perceptual set
The cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the
Compared with their counterparts of 80 years ago, teenagers today average __________ sleep each night.
2 hours less
Sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
Stage 2
During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?
REM Sleep
The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes.
The effects of chronic sleep deprivation include:
All of these:

  • suppression of the immune system

  • altered metabolic and hormonal functioning

  • impaired creativity

One effect of sleeping pills is to:
decrease REM sleep
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