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What is the renal fascia continuous w/ superiorly?
Diaphragmatic fascia
What vertebrae are the kidneys related to?
T12-L3/L4 

R is a little lower than the L
The hilum of the L kidney lies near what plane?

Relationship w/ R kindey?
Transpyloric plane - T12

Traverses the superior pole of the R kidney
Relationship of kidneys superiorly & inferiorly?
Superior = diaphragm
Inferior = psoas muscle (medially) & quadratus lumborus
What descend along the posterior surface of the kindeys?
Subcostal nerve & vessels & iliohypogastric & ilioinguinal nerves
What are the kidneys & liver separated by?
Hepatorenal recess
Relationship of the renal artery, vein & sinus at the hilum of the kidney?
Vein = anterior & to the right of the artery which is anterior to sinus
What is the apex of the renal pelvis continuous with?
Ureter
What is each minor calyx indented by?

What is it?
Renal papilla - apex of the renal pyramid from which urine is excreted
What form the lobes of the kidney?
Pyramids & their associated cortex
What do the ureters pass?
Cross anteriorly @ the bifurcation of the common iliac arteries
What/where are the 3 constrictions in the ureters?
1. Ureteropelvic jxn
2. Ureters crossing external iliac artery of pelvic brim
3. Ureters passing bladder wall
Major attachment of the adrenal glands?
Crura of diaphragm
Shape of adrenal glands?
Right = pyramidal --> makes contact w/ IVC anteromedially & liver anterolaterally
Left = crescent shaped
From right to left, what are the structures related to the medial borders of the adrenals?
R-->L

IVC --> R diaphragmatic crus --> celiac ganglion --> celiac trunk --> SMA --> L diaphragmatic crus
Adrenal cortex is derived from what?

Adrenal medulla?
Cortex = mesoderm

Medulla = neural crest cells
Innervation of adrenal gland?
PREganglionic sympathetics
At what level do the renal arteries arise?
b/w L1-L2
Course of the R renal artery?
Posterior to the IVC
What segments arise from the anterior branch of the renal artery?
Superior, Anteriorsuperior, Anteriorinferior & Inferior segmental arteries
What segments arise from the posterior branch of the renal artery?
Posterior segmental artery
Course of the L renal vein?
SMA = anterior
Aorta = posterior
Where do the renal veins drain?
Both = IVC
Where do the postsynaptic sympathetics go?
Chromaffin cells
Arterial branches to the abdominal portion of the ureter arises from what?
Renal arteries
Veins draining the abdominal portion of the ureter drain into what?
Renal & gonadal veins
Superior adrenal arteries arise from what?
Inferior phrenic arteries
Middle adrenal arteries arise from what?
Abdominal aorta @ level of SMA (L1)
Inferior adrenal arteries arise from what?
Renal arteries (b/w L1-L2)
Venous drainage of adrenals?
Right --> IVC


Left --> joins inferior phrenic --> L renal
Renal lymphatic follow what?

Where do they drain?
Follow renal veins
Drain into lumbar lymph nodes

Sup = lumbar
Middle = common iliac
Inf = common, external or internal iliac nodes
Innervation level of kidneys and adrenal?
Kidneys = T11-L2

Adrenals = T10-L1
What is nephroptosis?

How is it distinguished from an ectopic kidney?
Dropped kidney (adrenals stay in place)

Distinguished by ureter of normal length that has loose coiling or kinks
Where is the site for transplanting a kidney?

What are the renal vessels joined to?
Iliac fossa of the greater pelvis

External iliac vessels
Adult polycystic kidney disease is autosomal ___?
Dominant
What usually degenerates as embryo grows & failure of this degeneration process results in acessory renal arteries?
Inferior arteries & veins
Which is longer of renal arteries & veins?
R renal artery = longer
L renal vein = longer
What is renal vein entrapment?

What is it also known as?
Downward traction on the SMA compresses the L renal vein (mesoaortic compression of L renal vein)

Nutcracker Syndrome
Bifid renal pelvis & ureter result from what?
Incomplete division of the metanephric diverticulum
What does complete division result in?
Supernumerary kidney
What is a retrocaval ureter?
Ureter that leaves the kidney & passes posterior to the IVC
Fusion of what results in a horseshoe kidney?

Where is it located?

Is it symptomatic?
Fusion of the inferior poles of the kidney

L3-L5

No
Where do ectopic pelvic kidneys usually receive their blood supply?
Aortic bifurcation OR common iliac artery
Pain from kidney stone?
Inferioanterior from "loin to groin"

T11-L2
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