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In healthy humans, the prevalence of K. pneumoniae colonization is %?
_____1. Colon
_____2. Oropharynx
Skin is usually colonzied only transiently

1. 5-35%
2. 1-5%
Is the most predominant mode of acquisition of K. pneumoniae?
Person-to-person
What clonal group of cKP strains acquiring antimicrobial resistance which produce the KPC carbapenemase, is undergoing international dissemination?
Clonal group ST258

Other:
Spread of NDM-1 carbapenemase-producing strains from  India
K. pneumonia, an emerging variant that was first recognized in Taiwan in 1986 have occured globally in all ethnic groups, the majority have been reported in the Asian Pacific Rim?
hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP)
K. pneumonia variant causes serious life and organ threatening infections in younger healthy individuals from the community and can spread metastatically from primary sites of infection?
hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP)


Affectged indv. often have DM and are Asian ethnicity
hvKP infection initially was characterized and distinguished from traditional infection due to cKP by:
1. presentation as community-acquired pyrogenic ______ abscess.
2. occurence in pts lacking history of ________ disease.
3. propensity for metastatic spread to distant sites (eg., eyes, CNS, lungs) which occured in __-__%
1. pyrogenic LIVER abscess
2. HEPATOBILIARY disease
3. 11-80%
A granulomatous mucosal upper respiratory infection that progresses slowly and causes necrosis and occasionally obstruction of the nasal passages caused by subspecies of K. pneumoniae?
rhinoscleroma
CA: K. pneumonaie subspec. rhinoscleromatis
K. pneumoniae subspecies _____ has been implicated as a cause of chronic atrophic rhinitis and rarely of invasive disease in compromised hosts.
ozaenae
Common causes of K. pneumoniae subspec. among LCTF residents and hospitalized pts. because of increased rates of oropharyngeal colonization?
1.
2.
1. cKP
2. K. oxytoca
K. pneunomaniae as in all pneumonias due to enteric GNB, production of ___________ and evidence of _______ disease are typical.
purulent sputum
airspace disease
Pulmonary infection due to hvKP that has spread metastatically (eg from a hepatic abscess) usually includes _____________  densities more commonly in the lower lobes.
nodular bilateral densities
cKP accounts for %?
__-__% of UTI
__-__% of complicated UTI, including indwelling urinary  catheters.
1-2%
5-17%
1. Infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract and abdomen (esp. hepatic abscess) each account for __-__% of episodes of Klebsiella bacteremia.

2. Intravascular device-related infections account for another __-__% episodes

and surgical site and miscellaneous infections account for the rest.
1. 15-30%
2. 5-15%
1. K. pneumonaie usually ferment _____.

2. hvKP usually possess a ________ phenotype.




1.ferment lactose
Although the subspecies rhinoscleromatis and ozaenae are nonfermenters.

2. hypermucoviscous phenotype
cKP and K. oxytoca
are intrinsically resistant to
1.
2.
and nitrofurantoin is inconsistently active against them.
1. ampicllin
2. ticarcillin
Empirical treatment of serious or health-care assoc. cKP and K. oxytoca infections with ______ or _______ is prudent, as dictated by local susceptibilities.
1. amikacin
2. carbapenems

In strains that produce carbapenemase, optimal treatment:
Are the most active agents in vitro and are used most frequently.
1. Tigecycline
2. Polymixins (colistin)
x of y cards