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when diagnosing disease in MMs what are abnormal presentations?
- lessening of appetite
- changes in behavior
- wieght loss
- skin legions
- respiratory signs (increased mucus, labored breathing)
- ocular/aural/nasal discharge 
what types of things take place in physical exam?
- takeblood first to avoid stress response of total exam process
- auscultation- use stethescope to listen to lung, heart and GI tract
- examine every system
- palpate flippers
- keep on on animal as they may be dangerous
- listen to their trainers who know them best for observation of any changes 
unique features of auscultation in MMs
- can't get good seal under water
- cetaceans - expect 5-7 breaths in 5 minutes
- pinniped - 1 minute
- manatee - check length of body is that is length of lung
what is unique about the cetacean heart beat?
- it is regularly irregular, have sinus arrhythmia
- heart rate increases upon inhalation and decrease on exhale
- find it under pectoral flipper, 
what types of blood tests can be performed?
- review for CBC (white blood cells, evidence of infection or inflammation)
- endocrinology tests (thyroid, adrenal glands)
culture and cytology if we suspect infection
- serology for viral disease, bacterial or fungal infections
- bank blood for future testing or research
purpose of ultrasound in MM care
- ultrasound is a routine part of health evaluation
- used to image internal structures, soft tissue such as organs, lung, kidney, GI tract, reproductive tract, ovaries
- monitor pregnacy
- renal calculi - kidney stones (common in captive bottle nose dolphins) 
- bladder stonds
- liver/splenic masses
- pulmonary disease
purpose of x-ray in MMs
- usedto image internal bone structures or to watch GI tract barium
- useful in smaller MMs
- best for assessment of bone abnormalities
- seals eat rocks 
what is the purpose of gastroscopy?
- gastroscopy - usedto look into stomach, get gastric samples, smaple collection of either a biopsy or gastric fluids
what are the 3 kinds of endoscopy?
- gastroscopy
- bronchostropy
- artificial insemination 
what is bronchroscopy
 - bronchoscopy - looking in the lungs and airways. upper airways, bronchioles. smaple collection flush sterile water into lung an dsuck back up to culture and cytology
describe how endoscopy is used in artificial insemination
- artificial insemination - use camera to find way up into vagina, uterine horn to impregnate.
what other methods of diagnostic imagining are used and for what?
- CT is used more for MMs than MRI becuse facilities have CTs and because they are sized for smaller MMs (dolphin and seal)
- they help us to get a 3d reconstruction of the entire skeleton, of a broken skull for ex.
- MRI is used for imaging the central nervous system, seeing inside the brain to diagnose brain pathology and spinal column issues
what types of restraint of MMs are there?
- manual restraint is used in smaller pinnipeds less than 80 kg and cetaceans usually, pups too
- harder on sea lions and otariids because they are more aggressive 
describe a manual restraint of cetacean
- they lay ventrally on stomach, hard to breath on back
can restrain any whale on land because can't walk away
- tuck flippers under trainer legs
what are other types of mechanical restraint
- squeeze cage (for CA sea lions and larger harbor seals)
- dog house - box over animal, head contained, limited movement, rear flippers out)
- safety board
- head board
- board for cetaceans 
describe chemcial restraint
- drug induced immobilization
- sometimes required for large or dangerous animals
ideal drigs for immobilizing MMs
- general anesthesia (use when need high degree of imobilization for long period of time (MRI or CT)), when procedure would casue undue stress or pain without it
where is blood drawn on cetacean?
-ventral fluke
- peduncle (veins large here, dorsal fin vein and pector fin vein, but both are smaller)
why would we take blowhole sample?
- to find out what is going on with the respiratorry tract
- looking for bacteria, fungus, white blood cells
- research 
how do we collect urine?
- animals can be trained in aquariums
- free-ranging or untrained cetaceans can be catheterized
what does healthy gastric fluid in a cetacean look like?
- clear, cloudy, white/tan NOT red
- pH 0 - 1.0
cytology should not see abnormal#s, WBCs, RBCs or parasites
common cetacean disease
- sunburn
- dehydration
- wounds & skin legions
What is Erysipelothrix? 
- cetacean disease
- causes - stranded and aquarium cetaceans, fish contaminated with bacteria
- pathoneumonic - see it in lungs
- clinical signs = rhomboidal dermal plaques
- bad, untreated = septicemia = death
- treatment - antibiotics via IV
- are vaccines
what is poxvirus like in cetaceans and how is it treated?
- ringor pinhole lesions that leave a black stippled pattern, tattoo lesions on the skin of the dorsal body surface
- presumptive on appearance, through biopsy, PCR 
- treatment = self-limiting and regresses after months to years, may need antbiotics to controo secondary bacterial infections
what is the Lobomycosis in cetaceans and how do you treat it?
- it is a fungal organism
- dumb bell shaped yeast like organism
- results in skin lesions with cobblesone appearance
- treat via excision and antifungals
- found in bottlenose dolphins from polluted waters, have seen zoonotic transition
what is pneumonia like in cetaceans, how is it treated?
- causes aspiration, bacterial and viral
- clincial signs = respiratory effect and increased respiration, crackles or wheezes during auscultation, discharge from blow hole
-  diagnosed through elevated WBC, thoracic radiographs, pulmonary ultrasound
what does Morbillivirus look like in cetaceans and how is it treated?
- what is it's resevoir?
- clinical signs
- diagnosis techniques
- outcome?
- found in free ranging cetaceans and is often the cause of mass mortality events on east coast
- resevoir - pilot whales
- clinical signs = infrequently observed, often found dead, poor body condition (ectoparasites), abnormal behavoir (neurologic), respiratory distress
- diagnose through histopathology (post mortem)
- typically they die
what are renal stones like in whales and what is the treatment?
- bottlenose dolphins in aquariums frequently get these
- stones are mostly formed by Ammonium Acid Urates (AAU)
- manage their diet and hydration and make sure they don't break free into ureter
- could be due to feeding frequency and insulin resistence
what is iron storage disease in cetaceans?
- most common in bottlenose dolphins in aquarium
- treatment - their serum iron is elevated
 total iron binding capacity reaced
0 they have transferrin satruation
- ferritin
- bleed the dolphin, 1 liter a week
- common in fur seals, eqyptian fur bats, rhinoceros, toucans
the example of cetacean case report
- baby dolphin rejected by mother
- attempted to get mom to accept it
- attempted to get other mom who had a baby to accept it
- attempted to get other good mom without a baby to accept it
- then decided to raise it bottle fed by humans themselves
- after 6 months it was introduced to two other dolphins (mom and 7 moth old)
- alive 4 years at brookfield zoo
where do you draw blood on a pinniped?
- from a sea lion you can take it from the jugular vein BUT must be asleep
- hind flippers (phocid has a planar venous plexus (tarsal)
- otariids & otobenids - have interdigital veins
0 seal lions - caudal gluteal venipunture runs lateral to sacral vertebrae 
common pinniped conditions
- dehydration
- hypoglycemia- common in neonates, seem weak, nonresponsive
- GI parasites
- gastric foreign bodies (rocks)
treatment for pinniped rocks
- if small hope they pass through pooper
- large rocks do endoscopic removal
- do gastrotomy (cut open stomach and remove)
what are the sources of skin lesions they have?
- trauma- shark bites, dog bites
- monofilaments
-treatment - remove infected skin, femove foreign bodies
- topical and system antibiotics
- if suspected penetration to bone, do amputation 
ocular disease in pinnipeds
- usually corneal (surface of the eye)
- also cataracts (lens luxations)
- caused by light blue pool color reflecting the sun and damaging the eye
- water quality - too much chlorine ozone damage
- from looking up at trainers for feeding
- seasonal flare ups during the summer
- treatment = eyedrops
what does the pox virus look like in pinnipeds,
what how is it spread,
how is it treated
where is found on body
- parapoxvirus
- affects seals and sea lions
- spread by social behavior, head and neck rubbing
- common in rehab settings
- high morbidity, low mortality
- usually self- limiting 15 weeks, 2-3 cm cutaneous nodules
- mostly on head, neck and extremities
pinnipeds and SMSV
- San Miguel Sea Lion Virus
- Calicvirus
- infects sea lions and seals
- blisters ulcerate, slow to heal 
- can cause abortion
- usually self limiting
- zoonotic
moribillivirus in pinnipeds 
like cetaceans, often die
sea lion herpes
- leads to genital tumors
- can go to pup in utero
- causes really bad reproductive tumors in reproductive tract
what is demoic acid and how does it affect pinnipeds, how is treated?
- demonic acid is a toxin released by microscopic diatom
- accumulates in shellfish, sardines, anchovies
- sea lions get lesions in the brain, causes seizures, lots of death on west coast 
interesting features of the florida manatee (west indian manatee)
- federally endangered aquatic mammal
- fusiform in shape
- herbivore
- hindgut fermenter - digest in the secum like ruminants
 - lungs run the length of body
- nipples in armpit
- closest living relative = elephant
- babies depend on mom for 2 years 
common ailments for manatee
- cold stress - need water to be 68 of higher
- get lathargic, skin disease, dehydration
- watercraft injuries
- pneumothorax/pyothroa due to boat strike lung collapses
- get monofilament entanglement
other diseases of manatee
- bervetoxicosis (dinoflagellate, algalbloom, neurotoxin, drowning)
- papilloma virus - wild and captive -  
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