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Define hormone
chemical substances that are produced by ductless glands; released directly into the blood stream; and carried to other parts of the body where they produce a specific regulatory effect
Define endocrine route
hormone is transported via the blood to target organ
Define exocrine route
hormone is secreted to the exterior of the body where it interacts with a target organ
Define autocrine route
a hormone produced by the cell regulates the activity of the cell that produced it
Define paracrine route
hormones are secreted into the space in between cells and the interstitial fluid carries them to the target organ (neighbor cells)
Define neurocrine route
hormones diffuse through the synaptic clefts similar to neurotransmitters
Define epicrine route
hormones pass through gap junctions between cells and alters the function of adjacent cells
What are the three main types of hormones
peptides, amines, steroids
Peptides are made up of
Amines are modifications of
Steroids are made from
Peptide hormones and amines are _____ in secretory granules by endocrine cells
Steroid hormones must be
Name three hormones not secreted by endocrine glands
gastrin, secretin, and erythropoietin
Describe gastrin
a hormone that causes the release of other gastric juices from gastric glands in the stomach, stimulates digestion
Describe secretin
stimulates the secretion of intestinal/pancreated juices to continue digestion in the duodenum of the small intestine
Describe erythropoietin
is produced by the kidney and stimulates blood cell production in the bone marrow
Define target organ
the tissue which is able to respond to a hormone (has a specific receptor for that hormone)
Define receptors
complex of protein structures designed to bind a hormone to elicit its cellular effects
Define upregulation
increase in cellular component
Define downregulation
a decrease in cellular component
Protein receptors and amine receptors are located on the
plasma membrane
Steroid receptors can be found
in the cytoplasm or within the nucleus
Peptide hormones are ____ than steroid hormones
The response of peptide hormones is ____ and quickly ____
rapid, reversed
Peptide hormones cascade response results from _______ _____
secondary messengers
Define secondary messengers
cellular components that bring about desired effects of hormone after binding of the hormone to a receptor
Steroid hormones are ____ because they have to be synthesized and then secreted
Steroid hormone binding triggers _______ of DNA which leads to mRNA for the production of specific proteins
Name four organs whose only function is to produce hormones
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands
Name six hormones produced by the hypothalamus
CRH (corticotrophin-releasing hormone), GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone), oxytocin, ADH (antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin)
What is the function of the hypothalamus
releases hormones that stimulate the release of various hormones from the adenohypophysis
Name the two distinct tissues/lobes of the pituitary gland
anterior lobe aka adenohypophysis (epithelial tissue), posterior lobe aka neurohypophysis (neural tissue)
Describe the hypothalamohypophysial portal system
is a vascular portal system that is blood flow from a capillary network in the hypothalamus then through portal vessels to the glandular portion of the pituitary (adenohypophysis) and enters a second capillary network
Name six hormones produced by the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), GH (growth hormone), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), PRL (prolactin hormone)
Name two hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
oxytocin, ADH (antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin hormone)
______ stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal gland
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
______ from the adrenal cortex are generally associated with the stress response known as fight or flight syndrome
____ and ____ are involved with regulation of male and female reproductive processes
LH (luteinizing hormone), FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Most organs, tissues, and cells in the body can respond to _____ hormone
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is involved in ______ function and water ______
kidney, water
_____ is involved with smooth muscle contractions (of the uterus, myoepithelial cells in mammary gland)
_______ is the process of giving birth to a live animal
Oxytocin is regulated by ______ feedback
The trachea is C shaped and closed by _____ tissue
Name three hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
T4, T3, calcitonin
T3 increases _____ and almost all tissues have receptors for it
T4 stands for
T3 stands for
Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that helps control Ca2+ by _______ blood calcium
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