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What are the structures of the Digestive System?
Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, and the Large Intestine.
What are the Glandular Structures of the Digestive System?
Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and the pancreas.
What are the functions of the digestive system?
breaking down nutrients, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating solid wastes.
Where are Rugae found?
In the mucosa layer of the stomach wall.
What is the function of the rugae?
Permits expansion of mucosa layer as the stomach fills.
What are the cells of the mucosa?
simple columnar epithelium
What is on the surface of the mucosa cells?
gastric pits and glandular cells
What do gastric glands secrete?
Gastric Juices and they also contain substances needed for digestion.
What are the three kinds of gastric glands?

1) Zymogen cells

2) Parietal cells

3) Mucosa cells
What do zymogen cells secrete and what do they do?
They secrete pepsinogen which is then converted to pepsin which breaks down protein. It also secretes gastric lipase which breaks down lipids.
What do parietal cells secrete?
Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
What is the function of hydrochloric acid in the digestive system?
It converts pepsinogen into pepsin and also alters the pH.
What is the function of intrinsic factor?
It aids is absorption of vitamin B12
What do mucosa cells secrete?
mucus, which protects cells against HCl
Where are G cells found?
in the pyloric region in the mucosa layer of the stomach.
What type of cell are G cells?
enteroendocrine cell
What do G cells secrete?
Gastrin
What is the function of gastrin?
It stimulates secretion of gastric juices and gastric mobility.
What is the muscularis layer in the digestive system?
The layer of muscles in the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and the esophagus.
What is the extra layer of muscularis in the stomach called?
Oblique Layer
what are the plicae circulares?
Permanent transverse folds that increase surface area in the small intestine.
What are the villi's function?
to increase surface area and each have a blind-end lymph capillary which absorbs fat.
What is the function of intestinal glandular cells?
To secrete digestive enzymes.
What do the enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine secrete?
secretin, GIP, and CCK
What do paneth cells secrete in the smal intestine?
lysozymes
What do goblet cells secrete?
Mucus
What are peyer's patches and where are they found?
They are found in the mucosa of the small intestine and they play a role in lymphatic system.
What types of cells are found in the mucosa layer of the large intestine?
Goblet cells and some absorptive cells.
What is the haustra?
A pouch like structure found in the muscularis layer in the large intestine.
What are in the bags of peritoneum (epiploic appendages)?
Fat
How long is your large intestine?
5 Ft.
How long is your small intestine?
10 Ft.
What type of cells make up 99% of the pancreas and perform the exocrine functions?
Acini Cells (smal clussters of glandular epithial cells)
What is the function of the Acini cells?
Secretes pancreatic juices. (contains water, bicarbonate, digestive enzymes)
What is the function of sodium bicarbonate?
To buffer the hydrochloric acid.
NaHCO3 + HCl → H2CO3 + NaCl
What are the cells that make up 1% of pancreatic cells the preform endocrine functions?
pancreatic islets/islets of langerhans
What are the three types of pancreatic islets.
1) Alpha cells
2) Beta cells
3) Delta cells
What is the function of alpha cells in the pancreas?
to secrete glucogon to increase blood glucose levels
What is the function of beta cells in the pancreas?
to secrete insulin to decrease blood glucose levels.
What is the of delta cells in the pancreas?
to secrete somatostatin (which regulates alpha and beta cells)
What is the heaviest gland and the second largest organ in the body?
The Liver
Where is the liver located?
Under the diaphragm
What are the two outside coverings of the liver and their locations?
1) dense irregular connective tissue, located on posterior side.
2) peritoneum, located on anterior side.
Which of the two lobes of the liver is the largest?
The right lobe, which is subdivided into caudate and quadrate.
Define hepatocytes
highly specialized epithelial cells arranged in a platelike structure with a central vein in the center. They are the major functional cells of the liver.
What is the function of hepatocytes?
to make and secrete bile into the bile canaliculi.
What are the bile canliculi?
little canals that carry bile
What are large canaliculi called?
Bile ductules
Bile ductules merge to form what?
Bile ducts
Bile ducts merge to form?
right and left hepatic ducts, which merge to form one hepatic duct.
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