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abstract
A Java keyword used in a class definition to specify that a class is not to be instantiated, but rather inherited by other classes. An abstract class can have abstract methods that are not implemented in the abstract class, but in subclasses.
abstract class
A class that contains one or more abstract methods, and therefore can never be instantiated. Abstract classes are defined so that other classes can extend them and make them concrete by implementing the abstract methods.
A method that has no implementation.
access control
The methods by which interactions with resources are limited to collections of users or programs for the purpose of enforcing integrity, confidentiality, or availability constraints.
ACID
The acronym for the four properties guaranteed by transactions: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.
The arguments specified in a particular method call. See also formal parameter list.
API
Application Programming Interface. The specification of how a programmer writing an application accesses the behavior and state of classes and objects.
applet
A component that typically executes in a Web browser, but can execute in a variety of other applications or devices that support the applet programming model.
argument
A data item specified in a method call. An argument can be a literal value, a variable, or an expression.
array
A collection of data items, all of the same type, in which each item's position is uniquely designated by an integer.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard assignment of 7-bit numeric codes to characters. See also Unicode.
atomic
Refers to an operation that is never interrupted or left in an incomplete state under any circumstance.
authentication
The process by which an entity proves to another entity that it is acting on behalf of a specific identity.
autoboxing
Automatic conversion between reference and primitive types.
bean
A reusable software component that conforms to certain design and naming conventions. The conventions enable beans to be easily combined to create an application using tools that understand the conventions.
binary operator
An operator that has two arguments.
bitwise operator
An operator that manipulates the bits of one or more of its operands individually and in parallel. Examples include the binary logical operators (&, |, ^), the binary shift operators (<<, >>, >>>) and the unary one's complement operator (~).
block
In the Java programming language, any code between matching braces. Example: { x = 1; }
boolean
Refers to an expression or variable that can have only a true or false value. The Java programming language provides the boolean type and the literal values true and false.
break
A Java keyword used to resume program execution at the statement immediately following the current statement. If followed by a label, the program resumes execution at the labeled statement.
case
A Java keyword that defines a group of statements to begin executing if a value specified matches the value defined by a preceding switch keyword.
casting
Explicit conversion from one data type to another.
catch
A Java keyword used to declare a block of statements to be executed in the event that a Java exception, or run time error, occurs in a preceding try block.
char
A Java keyword used to declare a variable of type character.
In the Java programming language, a type that defines the implementation of a particular kind of object. A class definition defines instance and class variables and methods, as well as specifying the interfaces the class implements and the immediate superclass of the class. If the superclass is not explicitly specified, the superclass will implicitly be Object.
A method that is invoked without reference to a particular object. Class methods affect the class as a whole, not a particular instance of the class. Also called a static method. See also instance method.
A data item associated with a particular class as a whole--not with particular instances of the class. Class variables are defined in class definitions. Also called a static field. See also instance variable.
classpath
An environmental variable which tells the Java virtual machine1 and Java technology-based applications where to find the class libraries, including user-defined class libraries.
In the client/server model of communications, the client is a process that remotely accesses resources of a compute server, such as compute power and large memory capacity.
codebase
Works together with the code attribute in the <APPLET> tag to give a complete specification of where to find the main applet class file: code specifies the name of the file, and codebase specifies the URL of the directory containing the file.
commit
The point in a transaction when all updates to any resources involved in the transaction are made permanent.
compilation unit
The smallest unit of source code that can be compiled. In the current implementation of the Java platform, the compilation unit is a file.
A program to translate source code into code to be executed by a computer. The Java compiler translates source code written in the Java programming language into bytecode for the Java virtual machine1. See also interpreter.
compositing
The process of superimposing one image on another to create a single image.
constructor
A pseudo-method that creates an object. In the Java programming language, constructors are instance methods with the same name as their class. Constructors are invoked using the new keyword.
continue
A Java keyword used to resume program execution at the end of the current loop. If followed by a label, continue resumes execution where the label occurs.
core class
A public class (or interface) that is a standard member of the Java Platform. The intent is that the core classes for the Java platform, at minimum, are available on all operating systems where the Java platform runs. A program written entirely in the Java programming language relies only on core classes, meaning it can run anywhere. .
core packages
The required set of APIs in a Java platform edition which must be supported in any and all compatible implementations.
credentials
The information describing the security attributes of a principal. Credentials can be acquired only through authentication or delegation.
critical section
A segment of code in which a thread uses resources (such as certain instance variables) that can be used by other threads, but that must not be used by them at the same time.
declaration
A statement that establishes an identifier and associates attributes with it, without necessarily reserving its storage (for data) or providing the implementation (for methods). See also definition.
definition
A declaration that reserves storage (for data) or provides implementation (for methods). See also declaration.
deprecation
Refers to a class, interface, constructor, method or field that is no longer recommended, and may cease to exist in a future version.
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