Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

by


keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
Six Rights
Right Person Right Drug Right Dose Right Route Right Time Right Documentation
Asepsis
A condition free of pathogens.
Needle Handling Precautions
1. Minimize tasks in a moving ambulance.

2. Properly dispose of all sharps.

3. Recap needles only as a last resort.
Antiseptic
Cleaning agent that is not toxic to living tissue.
Drug Routes
Percutaneous
Pulmonary
Enteral
Parenteral
Percutaneous Routes

Topical medications.
Transdermal: Across skin

Mucous membrane:

Tongue (Sublingual)
Cheek/Gum (Buccal)
Eye (Ocular)
Nose (Nasal)
Ear (Aural)
Medication Atomization Device (MAD)
Device that produces a fine aerosol mist that permits wide and even distribution of a medication across the nasal mucosa.
Pulmonary Routes
Nebulizer (5-8lpm)
Metered dose inhalor
Endotracheal tube
Metered Dose Inhaler
Handheld device that produces a medicated spray for inhalation.
Endotracheal Medications
Naloxone (Narcan)
Atropine
Vasopressin
Epinephrine
Lidocaine (Xylocaine)

Increase dosages from 2x-2.5x
Dilute medication in normal saline 10ml.
Several ventilations to aerosolize.
Stop CPR if underway to administer medications.
Enteral Routes
Through the gastrointestinal tract.

Oral
Gastric tube
Rectal
Oral Delivery
Capsules
Tablets
Pills (compressed powder disk)
Enteric coated/time-release caps/tabs
Elixirs (alcohol/sweetened)
Emulsions (fat/oil)
Lozenges (solids)
Suspensions (small parts of solid)
Syrups (sugar/water)
Hepatic Alteration
Change in a medication's chemical composition that occurs in the liver.
Rectal Administration
Indications:

Unconscious, pediatric, objectionable taste/order.

Drug absorption may be erratic if gross fecal matter exists.

Some drugs may cause rectal irritation.

Contraindications:

diarrhea, rectal bleeding, hemorrhoids, severe anal irritation.
Rectal Emergency Drugs

diazepam (Valium)
lorazepam (Ativan)
midazolam (Versed)
Aspirin

Cause: seizures and cardiac/neurological.
Bolus
Concentrated mass of medication.
Enema
A liquid bolus of medication that is injected into the rectum.
Suppository
Medication packaged in a soft, pliable form for insertion into the rectum.
Rectal Administration Steps
1. Scene safety/BSI
2. Place pt on left side, expose anus.
3. Insert lubricated rectal tip, advance 3-4 inches.
4. Gently squeeze medication/suppository into rectum.
5. Hold buttocks together for 5-10 minutes for absorption.
Parenteral
Outside of the GI tract.
Hypodermic Needle
Hollow metal tube used with the syringe to administer medications.  Hilt/shaft. 18-27g.
Parenteral Drug Containers
Ampules
Single/multi dose vials
Nonconstituted drug vials
Prefilled syringes
Intravenous med fluids.
Ampules
Breakable glass vessel containing liquid medication.

Volume: 1 to 5ml, single dose

Least expensive.
Vial
Plastic of glass container with a self-sealing rubber top.
Non-constituted Drug Vial (Mix-O-Vial)
Vial with two containers, one holding a powdered medication and the other holding a liquid mixing solution.
Prefilled/preloaded Syringe
Syringe packaged in a tamper-proof container with the medication already in the barrel.
Intravenous Medicated Solutions
Parenteral medication packaged in an IV bag and administered as an IV infusion.
Parenteral Routes
Intradermal
Subcutaneous
Intramuscular
Intravenous
Intraosseous
Subcutaneous
Layer of loose connective tissue between the skin and muscle.

The subcutaneous tissue has few blood vessels and thus promotes slow, sustained absorption, which prolongs a drug's affect on the body.
Intradermal
Within the dermal layer of the skin.

Capillaries in the dermis afford a very slow rate of absorption, with little or no systemic distribution.
Intramuscular
Within the muscle.

Deltoid (2ml)
Dorsal glutea (5ml+)
Vastus lateralis (5ml+)
Rectus femoris (5ml)
Peripheral Venous Access
Surgical puncture of a vein in the arm, leg, or neck.
Intravenous Access
Surgical puncture of a vein to deliver medication or withdraw blood.  Also called cannulation.
Central Venous Access
Surgical puncture of the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein.

Do not attempt to access unless trained to use it and have the correct needles.
Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC)
Line threaded into the central circulation via a peripheral site.
Colloid Fluid

Intravenous solutions containing large proteins that cannot pass through capillary membranes.
Plasma protein fraction (plasmanate)
Salt poor albumin
Dextran
Hetastarch (Hespan)
Crystalloid Fluid
Intravenous solutions that contain electrolytes but lack the larger proteins associated with colloids.

Isotonic solutions
Hypertonic solutions
Hypotonic solutions
3 Common IV Fluids
Lactated Ringers: isotonic sodium-chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium lactate in water.

Normal saline: isotonic 0.9 sodium-chloride in water.

D5W: hypotonic glucose in water.

Both lactated ringers and normal saline are for fluid replacement but 2/3 will be lost in first hour to intravascular space.
Blood & Oxygen-carrying solutions
Blood is the most desirable fluid for replacement as it carries oxygen.

Oxygen-carrying solutions include perfluorocarbons, Hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solutions (HBOCs)
Blood Tubing
Administration tubing that contains a filter to prevent clots or other debris from entering the patient.
Hollow-needle catheter
Stylet that does not have a Teflon tube but is itself inserted into the vein and secured there.
IV Startkit
IV Fluid
Administration set
Intravenous cannula
Tape
Blood draw
Constricting band
Antiseptic
pyrogen
foreign protein capable of producing fever.
embolus
foreign particle in the blood.
circulatory overload
an excess in intravascular fluid volume.
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of the vein.
thrombus
blood clot.
air embolus
air in the vein.
necrosis
the sloughing off of dead tissue.
Anticoagulant
drug that inhibits blood clotting.
x of y cards Next >|