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What are the components of the cardiovascular system
the heart and system of vessels that distribute blood to tissues of the body and to the lungs for gas exchange
Approximately ___% of the blood is in the pulmonary circulation at any given time
Approximately ___% of the blood is in the systemic circulation at any given time
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called ____
Vessels that carry blood toward the heart are called _____
The heart is a ____-shaped hollow muscle
The base of the heart is towards the _____ and the apex is toward the ____
front (cranial), back/ground (caudal)
The apex almost touches the _____ which is dome shaped
The base is attached to larger arteries, veins, and the ______
pericardial sac
The apex is ventrally located and ____ within the pericardial sac
The visceral pericardium is the (inner/outer) _____ layer
inner, closest to the heart
The parietal pericardium is the (inner/outer) ______ layer
outer, away from the heart
Name the four main chambers of the heart
left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle
What is the septum that separates the two ventricles
interventricular septum
Name the three layers of the wall of the heart
endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
Define endocardium
the inner-most layer of the wall of the heart that is continuous with the endothelial lining of the blood vessels
Define myocardium
the middle layer of the wall of the heart which is made up of cardiac muscle
The (atria/ventricles) have a thicker layer of myocardium muscle
The (left/right) ventricle has the thickest layer of myocardium muscle
Define epicardium
the outermost layer of the wall of the heart which is a serous inner layer of pericardium
_____ _____ ensure unidirection flow of blood
heart valves
What are the two sets of heart valves
atrio-ventricular valves, semilunar valves
The ______ A-V valve is also called the mitral valve
bicuspid (left)
The _____ A-V valve is between the right atria and right ventricle and has three cup like leaflets
The _____ semilunar valve carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
The _____ semilunar valve keeps blood from flowing back into the left ventricle
The _____ valves are inverted into the ventricle
A-V valves are held in place by ______ _____ which attach to papillary muscles
cordae tendinae
The _______ valves guard blood flow into the blood vessel
The right side of the heart is the ____ pressure side
The ____ side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs which are located in close proximity to the heart (within the thoracic cavity)
The ____ side of the heart is the high pressure side because it pumps blood to the entire body
(T/F) Both atria contract and relax at the same time
(T/F) The right side of the heart has a thicker ventricular wall for more forceful contraction
The ____ side contains deoxygenated blood
The ____ side contains oxygenated blood
The ____ is formed by the myocardium of the left ventricle toward the caudal end of the animal
The right ventricle pumps blood through _____ circulation
Arteries take blood ____ from the heart
Veins bring blood _____ to the heart
The right and left _____ arteries are the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood
The pulmonary veins are the only veins that carry ____ blood
The free margins of the cusps (of A-V valves) are tethered to the interior of the ventricular wall by fibrous cords called
cordae tendinae
Cordae tendinae help keep the valve from ____ into the atrium
Define papillary muscles
small muscular protrusions of the ventricular wall to which cordae tendinae attach
The myocardium is made up of ____ muscle
The vasculature is made up of ____ muscle
List the branching of the vasculature from the time the leave the heart to the return
arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
Define capillaries
the smallest blood vessels, are one cell thick and are permeable to oxygen, nutrients, wastes, and metabolites
Veins sporadically have valves in them to maintain _____ flow of blood back to the heart
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