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the five stages of grief include
Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
what is a duty to act
refers to your legal obligation to provide sevice whether you feel the patient needs an ambulance or not
The tip of the scalpula is known as the what
The acromion
what is the part of the ulna makes up the part of the elbow
the decranon
what percentage does the diaphrams effort of breathing
60-70% that leaves about 30-40% that the intercostal muscles use
Where is the Tricuspid valve located
between the right atrium and the right ventricle
where is the Pulmonary valve located
at the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
Where is the Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve located
between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Where is the Aortic valve located
at the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle
what do alpha 1 properties do
They cause vasoconstriction and cause the sweat glands to produce
What do alpha 2 properties do
conteract the affects of alpha 1
What do Beta Properties do
Increase the heart rate and cardiac contration, and speed up the electrical impluses
What is pulsus pardoxus
when the systolic BP drops 10 mmhg when the patient inhales. You may also note that the patients pulse strength drops when they inhale
when a person is complaining of difficulty breathing what is one of the first things you do
expose the site, you have to see what your dealing with
What should you have ready in the case of respitory distress
PPV, when you are in doubt on whether or not to provide PPV, proive it, the earlier the better
what position do you put the patient with respiratory distress
In a position of comfort, semi-fowlers
what are the side effects of a metered dose inhaler
dry mouthtachycardiatremors, shakinessnervousnessnausea, vomiting
what do you want to do before you remove the cap off a metered dose inhaler
shake it for 30 seconds
What do the Beta 2 properties do
Make the smooth muscles dialate, especially in the broncioles
What is the calcaneous
The heal bone
what are the contraindications for giving nitro
the patients baseline systolic bp is below 90 mmhg or the the systolic bp is 30 mmhg less than the initial baseline the heart rate is less than 50 bpm or 100 bpm the patient has a suspected head injury the patient is an infant or child three doses have already been taken by the patient the patient has recently taken an ED medication
what does nitro do
dialates blood veselsdecreases workload of the heart decreses cardiac oxygen demand
if a patient has a pacemaker what do you do
you place the electrodes at leats 1 in away from it
what are some good ways to tell the difference in angina and heart attack
with a MI the pain will usually be more intense angina usually stops after 15 mins or so MI usually includes persperation, pale, nausea, weakness, lightheadedness nitro may give incomplete or no pain relief
if you are going to administer asprin for angina how much would you gve
160-325
what are the four ways that allergens can enter the body
injection, ingestion, inhalation, contact (absorption)
what would you do if your patient vomited in a suspected poisoning
bring the vomit in a clean contaer the the receving facility
if you found a carbon-monoxide victim how far do you want to move them away
at least 150 ft from the affected area
what are the breathing rates for people
adult: 12-20adolecent: 12-20school aged: 15-30preschool: 20-30 same for toddler, and infantinfant 30days-5mths 25-40neonate: 30-60
what are the normal pulse rates for ppl
elderly 90adult 60-80adolecent 60-105child(5-12yrs) 60-120child (1-5yrs) 80-150infant 120-150
how long would you provide PPV after you suctioned
2 mins
at what size is the cervix full dialated
10 cm
when does the dialation stage end
when the contractions are at regular 3 to 4 minute intervals, last at least 60 seconds each and feel bery intense
what are the contractions like in the expulsion stage
2-3 minutes apart and last for 60-90 seconds each, she will also feel significant pressure in her rectum saying she has to poop
what will happen to the pernium right before birth
it will bulge significantly
when will the placenta deliver, and what are some signs
5-20 mins after birth, 1. there will be a sudden increase in blood from the vagina 2. the uterus will shrink 3. the umbilical cord will lengthen 4. the mother has the urge to push
what is supine hypotensive syndrom
where the baby rests on the vena cava causing a drop in blood presure
when would you have cramping and vaginal bleed ing in the 1st trimester
8-12 weeks
what would you do if the baby comes out with the amnioic sack sitll intact
use your fingers to rupture the sac and push it away from the infants head
what do you do if you cannot remove the cord around the infants neck
place 2 clamps 2-3 inches apart and cut the cord, then remove it from around the neck
what would you suction first the nose or the mouth of the infant
the mouth, you dont want the infant to aspirate the liquid
what is the baby covered in when it comes from the birth canal
vernix caseosa, make sure that as you put your fingers around the infant dont put them in the armpits. you can damage nerve centers
as the feet come out what is the next thing you do
clean the newborns mouth and nose. make sure that you suction again
what are the steps that need to be taken when cutting the imbilical cord
as the pulsations stop put two clamps on the cord about 3 in apart, and aobut 6 in away from the baby
what do you do if you can transport but the mother hasnt delivered the placenta yet
transport anyway, dont delay for the placenta
what is the normal amount of blood loss during a birth
500 cc's of blood if the bleeding seems to be profuse start to massage the uteris
how would you massage the uteris
place one hand with fingers extended above the symphas pubis and use the other hand to cup the uteris and use a circular motion. it should feel like a grapefruit, also allow the infant to suck on the mothers breast, this will release a hormone that will help stop bleeding
what would you provide if the mother had a prolapsed cord
moisten the dressing with sterile salene, cover the cord, transport rapidly, and check for pulsations (pulsations should be present)
what is the difference in the breech birth
the buttocks or feet is protruding from the vagina, deliver the baby by just supprting. dont pull on the baby,
If the baby wont deliver in a breech birth what do you do
stick ur hand in the vagina making a V and place the infants mouth and nose in between to allow it to breath
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