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Blood Circulation
  • Powered by the pumping action of heart
  • Functions of blood: carries respriatory gases, nutrients, hormones , helps body regulate temperature
  • Blood Volume: male= 5-6 liters, 1.5 gallons
  • Female: 4-5 liters
Composition of Blood
  • made in red bone
  • 55% plasma
  • leukocytes & platelets < 1%
  • Erythrocytes 45% red blood cells
  • Blood cells are formed elements
  • Plasma: fluid portion and fibrinogen
  • Hematocrit: measure of % RBC
  • Males: 47% ± 5%
  • Females: 42% ± 5%
Blood Plasma
  • Straw colored, sticky fluid portion of blood
  • 90% water
  • Contains:
    • Ions: Na+ & Cl-
    • Nutrients: sugars, amino acids, lipids, wastes, proteins
    • Three main proteins: Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
Formed Elements
  • Erythrocytes, leukocytes, & platelets
  • Staining of blood cells:
  • Acidic dye:eosin(stains pink)
  • Basic Dye: methylene blue (stains blue & purple
Platelets
  • Cell Fragments: break off from megakaryocytes
  • Function: in clotting of blood
  • Chunks of larger: blown up cell
  • Mega Karyocytes: blow up and make platelets
  • Red Blood Cells: kick out nucleus & organells, make room for hemoglobin
  • only live for 90-120 days
  • Biconcave: increases surface area & flexability
Erythrocytes(red blood cells)
  • oxygen transporting cells
  • most numerous of formed elements
  • Have no organelles or nuclei
  • Hemoglobin: oxygen-carrying protein
  • Biconcave shape: 30% more surface area
  • live 100-120 days
  • originate in bone marrow
Structure of hemoglobin
  • Fe ion in heme group reverisibly binds O2
  • Binds some CO2 too
Leukocytes (White blood cells)
  • Protect body from infectious microorganisms
  • function outside the bloodstream in loose connective tissue
  • Diapedesis: circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries
Two types of Leukocytes: Granulocytes & Agranulocyte
  • Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
  • N = Neutrophil
  • L = Lymphocyte
  • M = Monocyte
  • E = Eosinophil
  • B = Basophil
Granulocytes: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
Neutrophils:
  • most numerous WBC (60%)
  • Phagocytize & destroy bacteria
  • Nucleus: has 2 or 6 lobes
  • Granules contain: enzymes similar to lysosymes: pick up acidic & basic stains
Eosinophils
  • Compose 1-4% of all WBC's
  • Plays role in: ending allergic reactions, parasitic infections
Basophils
  • about 0.5% of all Leukocytes
  • Nucleus: usually 2 lobes
  • Granules secrete histamines
  • Function in inflammation mediation
  • similar in function to mast cells
Agranulocytes: lymphocytes, monocytes
Lymphocytes
  • compose 20-45% of WBC's
  • most improtant cells of immune system
  • nucleus: stains dark purple
  • effective in fighting infectious organisms
  • Acts against a specific foreign molecule (antigen)
  • 2 main classes of lymphocyte:
  • T Cells: attack foreign cells directly
  • B Cells: multiply to become plasma cells, secretes antibodies
Monocytes
  • compose 4-8% of WBC's
  • the largest leukocytes
  • nuclues: kidney shaped
  • transform into macrophages: phagocytic cells
Formed Elements
  • Platelets
  • Leukocytes
  • Erythrocytes
Differential White Blood Cell Count
Granulocytes:
  • neutrophils: 40-70%)
  • Esinophils (1-4%)
  • Basophils (0-1%)
Agranulocytes:
  • Lymphocytes (20-45%)
  • Monocytes (4-8%)
Blood Cell Formation
  • Hematopoiesis: process by which blood cells are formed-100 billion new blood cells formed each day
  • occurs in bone marrow-located within all bones
Red marrow:
  • actively generates new blood cells
  • contains immature erythrocytes (stem cells)
  • remains in epiphyses of humerus,femur & pelvis for life
Yellow Marrow
  • dormant
  • contains many fat cells
  • located in long bones of adults
  • contains:
Cell Lines in Blood Cell Formation
  • All blood cells originate in bone marrow
  • All originate from one cell type
  • Blood Stem Cell (pluripotential hematopoeitic stem cell)
  • Lymphoid stem cells: give rise to lymphocytes
  • Myeloid stem cells: give rise to all other blood cells
Formation of Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
  • commited cells are proerythroblasts
  • remain in the reticulocyte stage for 1-2 days in circulation
  • make up about 1-2% of all erythrocytes
Formation of Leukocytes (White blood Cells)
  • Granulocytes form from myeloblasts
  • Monoblasts enlarge and form monocytes
  • Platelet-forming cells from megakaryoblasts: break apart into platelets
Disorders of the Blood: Erythrocytes
  • Polycythemia: abnormal excess of erythrocytes
  • Anemia: erythrocyte levels or hemoglobin concentrations are low
  • Sickle Cell Disease: inherited condition, results from a defective hemoglobin molecule, erythrocytes distort into a sickle shape
  • Hemachromatosis: inherited, abnormal excess of iron
Disorders of the Blood: leukocytes
  • Leukemia: a form of cancer
  • classifed as lymphoblastic or myeloblastic
Disorders of the blood: Platelets
  • Thrombocytopenia: abnormally low concentration of platelets
The Blood Throughout Life
  • First blood cell develop with the earliest blood vessels (around 4 weeks)
  • Mesenchyme cells cluster into blood islands
  • Late in second month: liver and spleen take over blood formation
  • Bone marrow becomes major hematopoietic organ at month 7
ABO BLood System
Blood Types (human only):
  • Type A: AA, AO
  • Type B: BB, BO
  • Type AB: AB (universal acceptor)
  • Type O: OO (universal Donor)
RH + or -
  • If you make Rh protein: +
  • If you dont make Rh protein: -
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