keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
The Circuits
  • Pulmonary Circuit: from the Right heart to the lungs
  • Systemic Circuit: From the left heart to rest of body
  • 65-70% in veins = blood reservoir
  • lumen is larger than in correspsonding arteries
  • 30-35% in heart, arteries & caplilaries
  • The chambers pump the same volume
Layers of Blood Vessels
Layers (Inside --> outside)

1. Tunic Interna or intima = endothelium + Connective tissue.
2. Tunic Media = Smooth Muscle + Connective tissue. Controls blood pressure changes, & thicker smooth muscle in arteries
3. Tunic Externa or Adventitia = thick layer of Connective Tissue

  • Vasa Vasorum
Distinguishing Arteries from veins
  • Artery Walls thicker
  • more smooth muscle & elastic fibers: ruffley edge (elastic)
  • smaller lumen
  • Additional: internal & external elastic membranes
  • Arterial walls contract
  • endothelium cannot contract: pleated apperance
  • Veins collapse in fixation
*When iron is oxidized it turns an orange red*
Capillaries
  • Smallest Blood Vessels
  • Only vessels that allow exchange: diffusion or active transport
  • Precapillary Sphincters(Go around) regulate flow and BP
  • Simple squamos epithelium; sometimes called endothelium
  • Continuous, fenestrated, or sinusoids
  • permit increasing exchange
  • capillary Beds (Plexuses) - regulate flow to tissues
  • Very felxible
  • Autonomic respone your brain controls
*Capillaries surround everything*
Structure of Capillaries
  • No peristration
  • Continuous epithelial cells
  • Most of regions of body except where fenestrations
  • Blood always have higher concentration of oxygen
  • Fenestrated: HAS PORES
Sinusoids
Wide, leaky capillaries found in some organs:
  • larger areas, usually fenestrated
  • intercellular clefts are wide open
  • blood movement very slow
  • exchange of larger molecules, Ex) proteins
  • Occur in liver, bone marrow, and spleen
Normal Blood Flow: from artery to capillary bed to vein to heart
3 exceptions: from artery to capillary to artery to capillary to vein
  • Hypophysis: pituitary gland (veins, no gases)
  • Liver
  • In kidney Nephrons: working unti of kidney, no diffusion of oxygen
  • Blood is filtered twice before it loses its oxygen
  • Kidney: arteriole blood
Veins

  • thin wall

  • large lumen

  • Low Blood Pressure

  • Low velocity

  • valves

Vascular Anastomoses
  • Vessels interconnect
  • interconnections that happen with veins and arteries
  • Organs recieve blood from more than one arterial source
  • Neighboring arteries form arterial anastomoses: provide collateral channels
  • Veins anastomose more frequently than arteries
*Your create more brances wherever you need more blood*
Vaso Vasorum
  • Vessels that feed other vessels
  • Vessels of vessels: nourish outer region of large vessels
Pulmonary Circuit
1. Right ventricle
2. Pulmonary trunk
3. Left & right Pulmonary AA
4. Lungs
5. 4 two left and two right pulmonary veins
6. Left Atrium
Arteries to the Head
  • Common Carotid (2): branches into external & internal
  • Vertebral Artery (2): through the transverse foramina, off subclavian goes to brain
  • Basilar Artery (1) through foramen magnum
  • Circle of Willis
  • Common Carotid & vertebral artery go to brain from aorta
Circle of Willis = Cerebral Arterial Circle
  • Ring of vessels surround pituitary gland
  • supplies cerebrum and cerebellum
  • Brain can recieve blood from carotid AA, and vertebral AA, or Basilar AA
  • Colateral circulation
  • Goes around optic chiasm
  • Internal carotid becomes middle and internal cerebral artery
  • Vertebral forms basilar artery-branches
Arteries of the Arm
  • Subcalvian Artery
  • Axilary artery
  • Brachial Artery: Radial artery, Ulnar artery
Descending Aorta: Thoracic Aorta
  • Abdominal Aorta
  • Common Iliac
  • External Iliac
  • Femoral (within pelvic)
  • Bronchial arteries: supply bronchi and lungs
  • Percardial arteries: supply pericardium
  • Mediastinal arteries: supply mediastinal structures
  • Esophogeal arteries: supply esophagus
  • Paired intercostal arteries: Thoracic wall
  • Superior Phrenic arteries: supply diaphragm
  • Kidney: renal arteries/vein
Abdominal Aorta
  • Celiac trunk: 3 branches: to liver, gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, doudenum, pancreas, spleen
  • Superior mesentric: to pancreas and duodenum, small intestine, colon
  • Paired suparenal: to adrenal glands
  • Paired renal: to kidneys
  • Paired gonadal: to testes/ovaries
  • Inferior mesentric: to terminal colon and rectum
  • Paired lumbar: to body wall
Circulation of the Leg
  • Common Iliac Artery & vein
  • External Iliac Atery 7 Vein
  • Femoral Artery & Vein
  • Popliteal Artery & vein: Anterior & posterior tibial
  • Dorsal Pedal Artery: pulse checking
  • Great Saphenous Vein: used for coronary bypass, longest vessel
Venous Circulation
  • Mostly parallels arterial circulation
  • Veins are more superficial in limbs
  • Major exception in the abdomen: portal circulation
Vena Cavae and Tributaries
Superior Vena Cava:
  • returns blood from body regions superior to diaphragm
Inferior Vena Cava:
  • Returns blood from body regions inferior to diaphragm
*Superior & inferir Vena Cava join at right atrium.*
Veins of Head and Neck
Dural Sinuses:
  • Superior & Inferior sagittal sinuses (has arachnoid villi-superior)
  • Straight Sinus
  • Transverse Sinuses
  • Sigmoid Sinus
  • No lymphatic in head
  • CSF is in head!
  • Sinus allows blood to drain faster.
Venous Drainage:
  • Internal jugular veins
  • External jugualr veins
  • Vertebral veins
Veins of Upper Limb
Deep veins
Superfical Veins:

  • Visible beneath the skin
  • Cephalic vein
  • Basilic Vein
  • Median Cubital Vein
  • Median Vein of the forearm
Antecubital Fossa
  • Form anastomese frequently
  • Median cubital vein is used to obtain blood or administer IV fluids
  • Used for Blood draw
Veins of Thorax
  • Azygos Vein: traveling parallel and behind inferior vena cava
  • Hemiazygous Vein
  • Accessory Hemiazygous Vein
  • dumps into superior & inferior Vena Cava
Veins of the Abdomen
  • lumbar veins
  • Gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins
  • Renal veins
  • Suprarenal veins
  • Hepatic veins
Veins of Pelvis & Lower Limbs
Deep veins
  • Share the name of the accompanying artery
Superficial Veins:
  • Great Saphenous Vein: empties into femoral vein
  • Small Saphenous vein: empties into popliteal vein
  • found in the leg, largest vein,
  • used for heart & bypass surgeries
Varicose Veins
  • BP in legs
  • Venous dilation
  • Pooling
  • May be painful and/or thrombogenic
Fetal Circulation
  • all oxygen & nutrition comes from the palcenta
1. Oxygenated blood from placenta
2. Umbilical vein
3. Liver

4. Inferior Vena cava(ductus venosus)
5. Right atrium
6. most blood shunted to left atrium via the Foramen Ovale
7.
Left venticle
8. Aorta
9. Body
10. Small amount blood enters right ventricle & pulmonary trunk, but most is shunted to the Aorta through ductus arteriosus
11. from the body-- deoxygenated blood returns to placenta through umbilical cord.
Circulation continued:
  • 3 weeks old baby has blood type
  • The placenta is the organ of respiration
  • Umbilical vein: oxygenated blood back to heart
  • Ductus Venosus: duct in a vein at liver that helps bypass
  • Foramen Ovale: flap tissue that shuts when baby breathes around age 3
  • Ductus Venosus becomes ligamentum venosus
  • Antibodies & oxygen is in placenta
Circulation Changes at Birth
  • No blood coming from placenta
  • Ductus Venosus becomes ligamentum venosus (= ligamentum teres)
  • Foramen Ovale closes & becomes fossa Ovale
  • Ductus Arteriosus closes & becomes ligamentum arteriosum
  • Umbilical vein and arteries degenerate
ductus venosus
shunts have of blood flow to inferior vena cava. allows oxygenates blood from placenta to bypass liver.
foramen ovale
allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium.
ductus arteriosus
connects pulmonary artery to aortic arch. allows most blood from right ventricle to bypass the lungs.
x of y cards