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Cell
the smallest living unit in our body: obtain nutrient, use energy to create molecules, Dispose waist; Maintain shape; Replicate themselves;
Cell: 3 main components
I. Plasma membrane; II. Cytoplasm; III. Nucleus;
I. Plasma Membrane - Definition
is an outer boundary, its internal has CYTOPLASM which make up organelles & surrounds the NUCLEUS: Seperating 2 of the major fluid compartment: IntraCellular & ExtraCellular Fluid.
Plasma Membrane - Structure (ICF-intraCellular Fluid) (ECF-EntraCellular Fluid)
The fluid mosaic model, double layers, (lipid+protein molecules): PhosphoLipid: Amphipathic: polar head, non polar tail. tail face each other. heads face ICF/ECF. GlycoLipid: ECF side only. Cholesterol: Membrane Proteins: Integral proteins: embedded into lipid layer. Peripheral Proteins: attach to membrane surface. GlycoProteins: ECF side only.
Plasma Membrane - Function
1. protective barrier, prevent leakage. 2. some proteins act as receptor. 3. Transport - moving into or Out of the cell: selective permeability. Type: osmosis: diffusion, carrier-mediated, pumping bulk/vesicular transport(endocytosis, exocytosis).
Plasma Membrane - Function Endocytosis(into) Exocytosis(out)
Endocytosis(into):mechanism by which particle enter cells. Phagocytosis: cell eating. Pinocytosis: cell drinking (fluid phase endocytosis) nutrient absortion. Mediated(receptor) Exocytosis(out):machnism which substance move out of the cell.
II CYTOPLASM (lack of Glycocalyx)
Iternal to plasma membrane, consist of 3 major elements: a. Cytosol, b. Organelles (9), & c. Inclusions.
a. Cytosol (cytoplasmic Matrix)
water(82%), ions, glucose, cloride, fatty acid, lipid, ADP(Edenosine TriPhospate - store & release E).
b. Organelles (9)
1. Ribosome 2. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) 3. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) 4. Goli Apparatus 5. Lysosomes 6. Peroxisomes 7. Mitochondria 8. CytoSkeleton 9. Centrosome
1. Ribosome
site of protein synthesis. it made of protein & ribosomal RNA(RiboNucleic Acid)
2. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)
Membrane netrwork w cisterors attached to nucleus. w Ribosone processing of protein.(ribosome attach to membrane make complete glycoProtein and detach from membrane) it also digestive enzymes that will constent in lysosome.
3. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)
Is a continue from rough ER. Has no ribosome. Lipid (metabolism - makeing/breaking fat)synthesis, detoxification. note: both rough& smooth ER store Calcium Ions.
4. Goli Apparatus
3 to 20 flat sacs with cisterns. Recieves protein from R-ER. Sort, process & package protein into: Secretory vesicle membrane vesicle storage vesicle(digestive enzyme to glysosome)
5. Lysosomes
vesicle containing enzymes(acid hydrolase) to digest cell material.
6. Peroxisomes
vesicle containing: Oxidase enzyme for deoxification. Catalase enzyme to breakdown of free radicals.(alcohol) it also perform other metabolic reaction such as breaking down long chain of fatty acids in lipi metabolism.
7. Mitochondria (hot dog shape)
Double membrane: outer is smooth inner is cristae Produce energy (ATP)for cellular function.
8. CytoSkeleton
sketleton of cell protein filament. fuction: provide structur, support determine shape of cell
9. Centrosome
Compose of: Matrix:cloud of protein. Centrioles: bundle of microtubles. Function: formation the bases of cilia & flagela.
c. Inclusions.
III Nucleus DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) (Kernel of the cell)
iiia. Nuclear Envelop iiib. Chromatin iiic. Nucleoli
iiia. Nuclear Envelop
Double membrane barrier, many holes(pores) very large that allow movement into/out of nucleus.
iiib. Chromatin
Compose of DNA & histone protine & condensed. chromatin contains tightly coiled strand of DNA. chromosomes(46) Extended chromatine contain uncoiled strand of DNA.
iiic. Nucleoli
Little nucleus one or more per nucleus DNA/RNA
Cell Life Cycle
Can divided into 2 major periods: 1. InterPhase: when cell is not dividing: 1a. G1 Phase:matabolically active 1b. S Phase:DNA replication(2complete DNA) 1c. G2 Phase:Enzymes for division are created. 2. Cell Division(Mitotic): has 2 major events: Mitotic phase & Cytokinesis Phase.
Cell Division (Mitotic & Cytokinesis)
M(mitotic)Phase: 2 events(Mitosis & Cytokinesis) Mitosis: Division of nucleus has 4 phases,has 4 phases, Pro, Meta, Ana, & teloPhase. . Cytoknesis:seperation of 1 cell to 2 cells.
ProPhase
Nuclear envelop disappears. Chromatin condenses: Sister chromatics help together by centrosome. Mitotic spindles form.
MetaPhase
Chromosome line up on meta plate. Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores.
AnaPhase
Spindle fibers shorten sister chromatids pulled apart. Chromatids head toward opposite to the pole.
TeloPhase
Chromatids at either pole extended chromatin returns nuclear envolope reappear.
CYTOKINESIS
dividsion of entire cell into 2 cells. Cytolinesis: cytoplasm divides, cell splits apart.
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