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The respiratory system conducts ______ air containing O2 along the respiratory passages to areas of gaseous exchange
The respiratory system conducts expired air containing ___ out of the body
The respiratory system regulates pH by the breaking and formation of ______
The respiratory system also assists in ________ regulation
The respiratory system also plays a role in_____, the production of sound
Define respiration
gaseous exchange between an animal and its environment
O2 is required to yield energy from ____ in the form of ATP
Water and ____ are the byproducts from converting glucose to energy in the form of ATP
What are the two levels of respiration
external, internal
_____ respiration is between air and the blood and occurs in the lungs
______ respiration is between blood and tissues/organs
Name six parts of the respiratory system
nose (nasal cavity/paranasal sinuses), pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi & bronchioles, and alveoli
Os rostri is a bone in the snout of ____
The nares are the external ______ or portion of the nose
The ______ , also called the nose pad, is a hairless pad of epidermis that is heavily pigmented and supplied with mucous and sweat glands
The ___ fold turbinates in the ventral point of the nasal cavity and ends rostrally in a small bulbous swelling.
The ______ _______ are air filled cavities within the facial bones of the skull
paranasal sinuses
The paranasal sinuses are lined with _____ _____ _____ and communicate with the nasal cavity through narrow openings
ciliated mucous epithelium
There are two frontal and two _____ sinuses
The nasal cavity continues into the ______
The oral cavity extends into the _______
The continuation of the ____ _____ separates the nasopharynx and the oropharynx
soft pallet
The ____ keeps food particles out of the trachea
The ____ is separated from the mouth by the hard and soft palates
nasal cavity
The nasal cavity is separated into halves by the ____ _____ which is made of cartilage and a plate of bone
nasal septum
Turbinate bones (conchae) separate the nasal cavity into _______
The turbinate bones are covered in mucosa which is well _______ and helps heat and cool the air
Olfactory epithelium is located at the ______ part of the nasal cavity
The pharynx is a common passageway for food and air that includes two parts, the dorsal nasopharynx and the ventral ______
The dorsal nasopharynx and the ventral oropharynx are divided by the ____ ____
soft palate
_____ is the act of swallowing
Phonation is an ______- state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream and produces sound
Muscles in the pharynx assist in ______ and ______
deglutination and phonation
The esophagus is a _____ tube, that does not contain cartilage, and is located close to the trachea in the thoracic cavity
The larynx regulates the flow of gases into the _______ tract and prevents anything other than gases from entering
The larynx is the organ of _____
Muscle contraction changes the tension in _______ of the larynx
As air moves past the ligaments the ______ causes voice or sound
For endotracheal tube intubation, the animal should be lying on their ______ side and the tongue is pulled so the ____ falls forward and the tube can pass into the trachea through the oral cavity
dorsal, epiglottis
Name the four cartilages of the larynx
epiglottis, thyroid, arytenoids, cricoids
The larynx is also known as the _____
The larynx has a pair of vocal ligaments which have mucous membranes that form _____ _____
vocal folds
The vocal ligaments project _____ into the lumen
Two factors that modify the movement of air are the size of the ____ and tension in the ____ ____
glottis, vocal cords
The trachea is composed to C-shaped rings composed of ____cartilage
The inside of the trachea is lined with ________ _______ epithelium cells
ciliated pseudostratified
Individual rings of the trachea are connected by _____ ______
annular ligaments
The C shape of the trachea is closed by smooth muscle known as the ______ which assists in expansion and contraction
Ruminants and ____ have a tracheal/accessory bronchus that goes into the right lung
The trachea divides into two _____, and one goes to each lung
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