by Zeffi


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Informal social control
social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smile and ridicule
Innovator
accepts the goals of society but pursues them with means that are regarded as improper.  I.E. safecracker steals money to buy consumer goods and expensive vacations
Labeling theory
an approach to deviance to attempt to explain why certain people are viewed as deviant while others who engaged in the same behavior are not. I.E.: roughnecks(criminals, delinquent kids, losers are labeled deviant while saints are not considered deviant even though they have similar quality.
Deviance
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society  (deviate from the norm)
Crime
a violation of criminal law for which some government authority applies formal punishment.
Essay: Describe the main arguments against legalizing marijuana discuss in class?(extra revenues, new drugs introduce)
Social inequality
a condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth , prestige or power
Stratification
a standard ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
Wealth
an inclusive term encompassing all of a person’s material assets , including land , stock, and other type of property
Slavery
a system of enforce servitude in which some people are owned by other people
False consciousness
in Karl Marx’s view; a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change
Capitalism
an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation profits
Esteem
the reputation that a person has earned within an occupation
Life chances
the opportunities people have to provide themselves with the material goods, positive living conditions and favorable experiences
Vertical mobility
the movement of an individual from one position to another of a different rank
Essay: Describe the difference between absolute poverty and relative poverty
Absolute poverty- a minimum level of subsistence that a family should be expected to live by
Relative poverty-a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society , whatever their lifestyles, are judge to be disadvantage in comparison with the nation as a whole
Racial Group
describe a group that is set apart from others because of physical difference that have taken on social significance
Minority
a subordinate group whose member have significantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs
Assimilations
process through which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become a part of a different culture
Contact Hypothesis
an interactionist perspective which states that in co-operative circumstances , interracial contact between people of equal status will reduce prejudice
Amalgamations
happens when a majority group and minority group combine to form a new group
Genocide
the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nations
I.E; Hitler and the Holocausts, Pol Pot and the Killing Fields
Stereotype
an unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group
Glass Ceiling
an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s gender, race, or ethnicity
Segregations
the physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence , work, place, and social events, often imposed on a minority group by the dominate group
Essay : Define the terms prejudice and discrimination; give example and illustrate your definition
Prejudice- the negative attitude towards an entire category of people often an ethnic or racial group (KKK)
Discrimination- the denial  of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice and arbitrary reasons(Women’s or Minorities right to vote)
Gender role
Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
Expressiveness / expressive role
Concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family.
Instrumentality
An emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one’s family and other social institutions.
Conflict response to gender inequality
the conflict theorists emphasize that men’s work is uniformly valued, while women’s work (whether unpaid labor in the home or wage labor) is devalued.  Relationship between females and males has traditionally been one of unequal power, with men in a dominant position over women.
Homophobia
Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality
Feminism
The belief in social, economic, and political equality for women
Matrix of domination
The cumulative impact of oppression because of race, gender, and class, as well as religion, sexual orientation, disability, and age
Essay: Define “wage gap” and explain reasons as discussed in class
Wage gap – different in earnings between men and women varies considerably depending on occupations Reasons may be: Men work harder jobs; men are the bread winner of the family
Family
A set of people related by blood, marriage, or some other agreed-upon relationship, or adoption, who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society
Serial Monogamy
A form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time.
Polyandry
A form of polygamy in which a woman may have more than one husband at the same time.
Egalitarian family
An authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals.
Endogamy
The restriction of mate selection to people within the same group.
Adoption
In a legal sense, a process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents.
Essay: What are the five factors associated with divorce as discussed in class?
  1. Greater social acceptance
  2. More liberal
  3. Fewer children
  4. Greater family income
  5. Wives depend on their husband less as society provides greater opportunities for women
Economic system
The social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed.
Monopoly
Control of a market by a single business firm.
Informal economy
Transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government.
Force
The actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s will on others.
Influence
The exercise of power through a process of persuasion.
Deindustrialization
The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity, such as factories and plants.
Essay: Name and define three types of Authority.
  1. Traditional authority – legitimate power is conferred by custom and accepted practice. ex: A king or queen is accepted as ruler of a nation simply by virtue of inheriting the crown.
  2. Rational-Legal authority – Power is made legitimate by law. ex: The U.S. Constitution gives Congress and our president the authority to make and enforce laws and policies.
  3. Charismatic authority – refers to the power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers. ex: Jesus, Joan of Arc, Gandhi, Malcolm X, or Martin Luther King, Jr.
Culture-bound syndrome
A disease or illness that cannot be understood apart from its specific social context.
Health
As defined by the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absences of disease and infirmity.
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