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Name five stages of the digestive process
ingestion, digestion, absorption, metabolism, excretion
Ingestion includes prehension and ______
mastication
Prehension is the ____ up of food to the mouth
lifting
Mastication is the ____ of food into particles and is the _______ digestion
breaking, mechanical
Digestion is the chemical process of breaking down food particles and requires _____ juices
gastric
Once food has been broken down such as proteins to amino acids _____ of those small components occurs
absorption
_____ is when simplified nutrients undergo further modification in order for the cell to utilize them
metabolism
Excretion is the ______ of modified, compacted food from the body
elimination
Name six key anatomical features of the digestive system
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines
What are the two types of stomachs
Ruminants (4 chambers) and non-ruminants (simple or 1 chamber)
Name four glands involved in the digestive system
salivary glands, pancreas, gall bladder, and liver
The salivary glands are associated with the ____ cavity and secrete saliva
oro
Saliva is composed mostly of water but also includes _____, ions, and salts
enzymes
The two main enzymes in saliva are lysozyme and ______
amylase
Lysozyme breaks down ______
bacteria/microbes
Amylase breaks down ____
sugars
The pancreas secretes pancreatic fluids into the duodenum through the ____ ___
pancreatic duct
The gall bladder stores ____ which is secreted to the duodenum through the ____ ___
bile, bile duct
The liver is the site where ___ is produced
bile
___ do not have a gall bladder so they must store bile in the liver
horses
The digestive tract lies within the abdominal and _____ cavities
pelvic
The _____ peritoneum is the layer of serosa that lies directly on the organs
visceral
The parietal peritoneum is the layer of serosa that invests with the ____ wall
abdominal
The folds of the peritoneum that support different organs are called the ____
mesenteries
The ____ supports the stomach
omentum
There is a ____ and ____ part of the esophagus
cervical and thoracic
A Hiatus is a ____ or opening
hole
What is the function of the mouth/oral cavity
holding, grinding, and mixing food with saliva
The labia are also called the ____ and they form a ____-____ junction at the corners of the mouth
lips, muco-cutaneous
Small ruminants have a deeply grooved ______, which is the deep division between the labia that is associated with the incisive bone
philtrum
The oral ____ is the space between the teeth and the lips
vestibule
The oral cavity contains a hard and soft ____
palate
The hard palate is located _____
rostrally
The soft palate is located _____, and is a musculocutaneous sheet that extends to the epiglottis
caudally
Hoses are obligate ____ ____ because of an extended soft palate
nose breathers
The teeth are arranged in two dental _____
arcades
One of the arcades is associated with the _____ while the other is with the _____ and maxillary bones
mandible, incisive
_____ is a physiologic gap in each arch between the front and cheek teeth
diastema
It is called ____ when an animal has various types of teeth that specialize in different aspects of prehension and mastication
heterodonty
_____ describes teeth with large crowns that are often associated with grazing animals
hypsodont
____ describes short teeth with low crowns and well developed roots
brachydont
When animals develop a set of deciduous teeth (baby/milk teeth) that fall out and are replaced with permanent ones it is called _____
diphyodont
____ holds the tooth to the jaw
cementum
The main part of the tooth is called _____
dentine
____ is irreplaceable and if it is gone then the dentine is exposed
enamel
The ______ teeth help with the further tearing of flesh, they are the last premolar in the maxilla and the first molar in the mandible
carnassials
What is the dental formula for the dog?
maxilla arcade 3I 1C 4PM 2M, mandible arcade 3I 1C 4PM 3M
The _____is a muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach
esophagus
What type of epithelium forms longitudinal folds that allow the food bolus to pass in the esophagus
stratified squamous
The food bolus passes due to wave of contraction of esophageal muscles known as
peristalsis
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