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minute living things that are usually too small to be seen with the unaided eye. This group included Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, and Microscopic Algae.
Disease producing
Plural: Genera genus is the first name and is always capitalized
specific epithet
(species name) follows the genus and is not capitalized.
Staphyloccus aureus
a bacterium commonly fournd on human skin. Staphylo describes clustered arangement of the cells; coccus indicates that they are shaped like spheres. The specific epithet, aureus is Latin for golden, the color of many colonies of this bacterium
singular: bacterrium; are relatively simple, single celled (unicellular) organisms. Because their genetif material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane bacterial cells are called Prokaryotes; comming form greek meaning pre nucleus.
Rodlike/spherical or ovoid/ corkscrew or curved. These are the common shapes but some bacteria are star-shaped or square. (individual bacteria mayform pairs, chains, clusters or other groupings; such formations are usually characteristic or a particular genus of species of bacteria.
Bacteria are enclosed in cell walls that are largely composed of Carbohydrate protein complexes called peptidoglycan.
Binary Fission
How bacteria reproduce, by dividing into two equal cells
Like bacteria,archaea consist of prokaryotic cells, but if they have cell walls, the walls lack peptidoglycan.
Three main groups of Archaea
methanogens: produce methane as a waste product from respiration. Extreme halophiles: (halo=salt, philic=loving) they live in extremely salty environments such as the Great salt lake and the sea. extreme thermophiles: (therm=heat) live in hot sulfurous water such as hot springs. **archaea are not known to cause disease in humans**
are eukaryotes, organisms whose cells have a distinct nucleus containing the cells genetic material (DNA) surrrounded by a special envelope called the nuclear membrane.
Unicellular forms of fungi:
yeasts, oval microorganisms that are larger than bacteria. most typical fungi are molds. Molds form visible masses called mycelia, which are composed of long filaments called hyphae, that branch and intertwine.
unicellular, eukaryotic microbes. Protozoa move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia.
are photosynthetic eykaryotes with a wide variety of shapes and both sexual and asexual reproductive forms.
very different from other groups mentioned. can typically only be seen with an electorn microscope. a virus particle contains a core made of only one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA.
The two major groups of parasitic worms are the flatworms and the round worms, collectively called helminths.
3 domains
Bacteria(cell walls contain a protein-carbohydrate complex called peptidoglycan) Archaea(cell walls, if present, lack peptidoglycan) Eukarya: includes Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
Cell Theory
The theory that all living things are composed of cells.
Spontaneous Generation
many scientists and philosophers believed that some forms of life could arise spontaneously fform nonliving matter; they called this hypothetical process spontaneous generation.
the claim that living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells.
Showed that mircoorganisms can be present in nonliving matter- on solids, in liquids, and in the air.
Aseptic techniques
technques that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms.
Pasteur found instead that microorganisms called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air. This process is called ffermentation, is used to make wine and beer. In the presenc eof air bacteria change the alcohol into binegar.
Pasteurs slution to the spoilage off beer and wine was o hear the beer and wine jsut enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused the spoilage.
Germ theory of disease
Microorganisms might have similar reltionships with plants and animals-specifically, that microorganisms might cause disease.
Joseph Lister
Applied germ theory to medical procedures. Lister knew that phenol kills bacteria, so he began treating surgical wounds with it. Listers technique was one of the earliest medical attempts to control infections caused by microorganisms.
Koch's postulates
Robert Koch established a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease.
The protection from disease provided by vacination (or by recovery from the disease ittself) is called immunity.
Treatment of disease by using chemical substances
Synthetic Drugs
Chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the labratory
Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other mcroorganisms
the study of bacteria, began with van Leeuwenhhoek's first examination of tooth scrapings.
The study of fungi
the study of protozoa and parasitic worms.
the study of all of an organisms genes
the study of immunity
Substances generated by the bodys own immune systen were discovered in 1960. Interferons inhibit replication of viruses and have triggered consideable research related to the treatment of viral diseases and cancer.
the study of viruses
Recombinant DNA
When recombinant DNA is inserted into bacteria (and othr microbes) it can be used to make large quantities of the desired protein. The ttechnology that developed from this technique is called RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY or GENETIC ENGINEERING an it had its orrigins in tow related fields.
Microbial genetics/Molecular biology
studies the mechanisms by which microorganisms inherit traits./ speciffically studies how genetic information is carried in moleules of DNA and how DNA directs the synthesis of proteins.
Microbial ecology
the study of the relationship between microorganisms and their environment.
toxins can be removed from underground wells, chemical spills, toxic waste sites, and oil spills, such as the Exxon Valdez disaster of 1989.
the commercial use of microorganisms to produce some common foods and chemicals
gene therapy
inserting a missing gene of replacig a defective on in human cells
genetic diseases may also be treatable by gene therapy in the futture:
hemophilia, an inability of the blood to clot normally; diabetes, elevated blood sugar levels; sickle cell disease, an abnormal kind of hemoglobin; and one type of hypercholesterolemis, high blood cholesterol
Normal Microbiota
we all have a variety of microorganisms on and inside our bodies. These are our normal microbiota or flora. the normal microbiota not only do us no harm, but can beneffit us. **when some normal microbiota leave their normal habitat they can cause disease.
whether our bodies overcome the offensice tactics of a particular microbe depends on our resistance or the ability to ward off disease.
Infectious Disease
is one in which pathogens invade a susceptible host, such as a human or an animal.
Avian inffluenza A (H5N1)
disease that caught the atttention of the public in 2003 when it killed millions of poultry and 24 people in eight countired in sutheast asia. Avian influenza viruses occurr in birds worldwide.
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