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What type of surgery is effective in treating the causes of visual problems instead of correcting symptoms. Patients are selected based on the degree of myopia; the shape of the cornea; and the absence of medical conditions such as severe diabetes, glaucoma, or pregnancy. The usual age for correction is between 20 to 60 years?
Refractive surgery
The anterior chamber is filled with a clear, watery fluid similar to blood plasma which is constantly formed, drained, and replaced to maintain normal intraocular pressure.and helps maintain the shape of the eyeball, keeps the retina attached to the choroid, and refracts light. What is this called?
Aqueous humor
What is vitreous humor?
The posterior chamber is filled with vitreous humor, a transparent, jellylike substance that gives shape to the eyeball, keeps the retina attached to the choroid, and refracts light. It differs from the aqueous humor in that it is not continually replaced.
What part of the brain is responsible for motor movement, relay of impulses, and auditory and visual reflexes. It is the origin of cranial nerves III and IV?
The midbrain located in the brainstem
Which neurotransmitter plays a role in nerve impulse transmission; it spills into the synapse area and speeds the transmission of the impulse. The enzyme cholinesterase is then released to deactivate the acetylcholine once the message or impulse has been sent. This happens rapidly and continuously as each impulse is relayed.
Acetylcholine
In times of stress which part of the autonomic system takes over to prepare the body for “fight or flight.” Heartbeat accelerates, blood pressure increases, and adrenal glands increase their secretions?
Sympathetic system
What are the early signs of ICP?
Signs of increased ICP may include drowsiness, confusion, and seizures.
What type of stroke is a result from bleeding into the brain itself?
Hemorrhagic strokes
Which part of the brain contains the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata?
The Brainstem
Which type of aphasia is the inability to comprehend the spoken word or written word?
Sensory aphasia or receptive aphasia
Which part of the brain is mainly responsible for coordination of voluntary movement and maintenance of balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone?
The cerebellum
Which diagnostic exam is to detect pathologic conditions of the cerebrum and spinal cord using a technique of scanning without radioisotopes. There is no special physical preparation of the patient for the test.The test takes 20 to 30 minutes if done without contrast medium and about 60 minutes if done with contrast. The procedure is painless, except for the slight discomfort that occurs when an intravenous line is started for the injection of the contrast dye
CT
What are the 2 chambers of the eye?
The two chambers of the eye are the anterior chamber, which contains aqueous humor, and the posterior chamber, which contains vitreous humor.
The _______ _______ is a surgically implanted hearing device for the profoundly deaf person whose sensorineural hearing loss is either congenital or acquired.
Cochlear Implant
Ms. R. is diagnosed with an inner ear problem. The major symptom would be 1. echoing, 2. intense pain, 3. vertigo, or 4. loss of hearing?
3. Vertigo
Ms. K. has just had cataract surgery. What would be the Important discharge instructions?
Wear an eyeshield at night on the operative eye; avoid bending, stooping, coughing or lifting; instill prescribed eyedrops in the the conjunctival sac
What is the most likely cause of hearing loss in the older adult?
Cerumen buildup
Which part of the brain plays a vital role in the control of body temperature; fluid balance; appetite; and certain emotions, such as fear, pleasure, and pain?
The hypothalamus and it lies beneath the thalamus,
What is defined as difficult, poorly articulated speech that usually results from interference in the control over the muscles of speech. The general cause is damage to a central or peripheral nerve.
Dysarthria
Which neurotransmitter induces sleep, affects sensory perception, controls temperature, and has a role in control of mood?
Seratonin
Which is the largest part of the brain?
the Cerebrum
What perceptual problem is characterized by defective vision or blindness in half of the visual field?
Hemianopia
With some muscle problems, the affected muscle shows small, localized, spontaneous, and involuntary contractions called what?
Fasciculations.
What isi involuntary, sudden movement or muscular contraction?
Spastic
Which part of the brain contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus and where is it located?
The diencephalon (often called the interbrain) and it lies beneath the cerebrum.
Which type of aphasia is the inability to understand the spoken word or to speak?
Global aphasia
What is a highly contagious form of conjunctivitis caused by a strain of the C. trachomatis virus. Transmission is by direct contact with an ocular discharge. It is rare in the United States but is a major cause of blindness in the Far East and in Mediterranean countries.
Trachoma
What may result from error of refraction in which rays of light entering the eye are brought into focus behind the retina?
Hyperopia or farsightedness
In the advanced stages of this disorder the patient will have progressive vision loss and the presence of floaters, which are minute products of the hemorrhage.
Retinopathy Retinopathy
Glaucoma is associated with a progressive loss ofwhat type of vision?
Peripheral
What is a chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, progressive unilateral nerve deafness, and tinnitus?
Meniere\'s disease
What is a separation of the retina from the choroid in the posterior area of the eye and usually results from a hole in the retina that allows vitreous humor to leak between the choroid and the retina?
Retinal Detachment
What is a surgical incision of the eardrum and is performed to relieve pressure and release purulent exudate from the middle ear? The procedure is done under either local or general anesthesia.
Myringotomy
Which neuro-transmitter or chemical is produced when you\'re having an allergic reaction?
Histamine
Mr. J. comes into the clinic complaining of progressive loss of vision in the center of his visual field. His physician would probably diagnose this condition as: 1. macular degeneration, 2. primary open-angled glaucoma, 3. color blindness or 4. retinal degeneration?
1. macular degeneration.
With Compartment Syndrome how long do you have to get the patient ready for surgey?
30 minutes
Any patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage should be started on this calcium channel blockerwithin 96 hours of bleeding and receive it for 21 days to prevent vasospasm.
Nimodipine (Nimotop)
What are the three protective mechanisms of the brain and spinal cord?
the meninges: (1) the dura mater, the outer most layer; (2) the arachnoid membrane, the second layer; and (3) the pia mater, the inner most layer
What is the major function of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
The parasympathetic nervous system slows things down.
Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are known as what?
Neurotransmitters
The four lobes of the cerebrum are:
The frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe
Which type of aphasia is inability to use symbols of speech (also called expressive aphasia)
Motor aphasia
Vital centers that regulate breathing, etc are found where?
In the medulla oblongata is the distal portion of the brainstem. The medulla controls heartbeat, rhythm of breathing, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and hiccups (singultus)
What are the parts of the brainstem?
The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Another name for the Autonomic Nervous System/What systems does it control?
involuntary nervous system . It controls the activities of the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and all glands.
Which is the second largest portion of the brain?
The cerebellum
What is a form of aphasia characterized by the inability to name objects?
Anomia
What is it when the sole of the foot is stroked along side of sole beginning at heel and then moving across ball of foot to big toe, toes will fan out with dorsiflexion of big toe.
Babinski Reflex
Which neurotransmitter primarily affects motor function?
Dopamine
Which is the preferred position for a patient in shock?
Supine
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