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Leeuwenhoek
1670 invented microcope
Jenner
1790\'s 1st vaccine for smallpox
Semmelweis
1850\'s aseptic technique in Vienna w/ delivering moms
Lister
1865 antiseptics/disinfectants during surgery & on wounds
Pastuer
1850\'s-1880\'s vaccine rabies/anthrax; disproved spontaneous generation of microbes
Koch
1870\'s Koch postulates to establish organism is cause of disease
4 steps of Koch Postulates
1. show organism is exists in diseased animal and not in healthy animal 2. get pure culture 3. get same sx\'s by innoculating healthy animal 4. isolate identical microbe from newly infected animal
Fleming
1900\'s agents that destroy bacteria (lsyozyme and PCN)
7 levels of nomenclature
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
binomial system
uses genus in caps & species in lower case; both in italics
biovars
aka strains; biological variants; 1 or 2 genes vary
serovars
vary in immunilogical properties
Archea
1 of 2 domains for bacteria; live in extreme environments
Bacteria
1 of 2 domains for bacteria; these are orignally known bacteria; human pathogens
prokaryotes
cells that have no nucleus; both archea/bacteria
eukaryotes
cells that have nucleus; all human, animal, plant, yeast, & mold cells
cyanobacteria
blue/green algae in water that is actually bacteria; produces O2
light microscope
100x lens w/ 10x eyepeice = 1000x magnification; max in 2000x); smallest to be seen in 0.2 microns so not viruses
darkfield microscope
light blocked so is reflected off bacteria and is seen against dark background looking bigger; 0.2 microns easily seen
transmission electron microscope
electrons pass thru specimen, heavy metals pile up around virus; reveals shape; 0.03-0.3 microns easily seen
scanning electron microscope
computer detects scattered electrons; reveals surface structure of virus; 0.03-0.3 microns easily seen
medium
nutritious mixture that supports growth of microbes
broth
liquid medium; most common BHI-boiled cow heart/brain
solid
broth mixed w/ agar and allowed to cool; agar is sugars
polar
+ charge at one end of molecule, - charge at other; ex: water, magnet
nonpolar
no charge diffference; ex: oil
acid
excess H+ in H2O solution; 1-6 on pH scale
basic
excess OH- in H2O solution; 8-14 on pH scale
neutral
7 on pH scale; no excess H+ or OH-; human pathogens generally grow in neutral
proteins
made of 100-600 of the 22 different amino acids in a chain; order of acids=function of protein
enzymes
proteins that cause chemical rxn\'s (catalysts)
Polysaccharides
sugars in long chains like beads on string; function is structural-strength; made by enzymes
Nucleic Acids
2 types-DNA RNA; sugar-phosphate structure; HUGE (millions of units); each sugar has 1 of 4 poss. molecules attached & assigned a letter
codon
3 letters from nucleic acids
gene
string of 3 letter codons
chromosome
tounsands of genes in single double stranded DNA; always paired in certain order
DNA
groups of chromosomes; adenine always paired w/ thymidine; cytosine c/ guanine
RNA
single stranded genes; thymidine is replaced by uridine; template for protein synthesis (translation)
Lipids
fats; span membrane of cell; polar end faces water on both sides of membrane, nonpolar tails face each other
Sterols
type of lipid useful as antibiotic targets
cholesterol
sterol found in animals
ergosterols
sterol found in fungal cells
morphology
size, shape, & cluster pattern of bacteria
cocci
spherical shaped
bacilli
rod shaped
spirochete
helicial/spiral shaped (like spring)
vibrio
doesn\'t make full spiral, looks like comma
mono
single cell
diplo
two cells linked
tetra
4 cells linked in square
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