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pain that lasts only through the expected recovery period (less than 6 months), whether it has a sudden or slow onset and regardless of the intensity
acute pain
where nonpainful stimuli (eg. contact with linen, water or wind) produces pain or dysthesia, which is an unpleasant abnormal sensation
allodynia
full agonists which are pure opiod drugs that bind tightly to mu receptor sites, producing maximum pain inhibition, anagonist effect
agonist analgesic
mixed agonist-antagonist drugs that can act like opiods and relieve pain (agonist effect) when given to a client who has not taken any pure opiods
agonist-antagonist analgesic
pain associated with cancers; can be related or unrelated to the disease or its treatment
cancer pain
pain resulting from malfunctioning nerves in the central nervous system
central neuropathic pain
prolonged pain, usually recurring or persisting over 6 months or longer, and interferes with functioning
chronic pain
medication that is not classified as a pain medication; however, it has properties that may reduce pain alone, or in combination with other analgesics; relieve other discomforts; potentiate the effect of pain medication; or reduce the pain medication's side effects
coanalgesic
obliterates pain, temperature sensation below the level of the spinothalamic portion of the anterolateral tract is severed. This procedure is usually done for pain in the legs and trunk
cordotomy
unpleasant abnormal sensation
dysesthesia
a stroking massage technique
effleurage
equal analgesia; used when referring to the doses of various opiod analgesics that provide approximately the same pain relief
equianalgesia
pain assessment
fifth vital sign
extremely sensitivity to pain
hyperalgesia
heightened response to a painful stimulus; hyperalgesia
hyperpathia
Pain that is in the 1-3 range
mild pain
pain that is in the 4-6 range
moderate pain
chemical interruption of a nerve pathway effected by injecting a local anesthetic
nerve block
surgery in which peripheral or cranial nerves are interrupted to alleviate localized pain
neuroctomy
the result of a disturbance of the peripheral or central nervous suste, that results in pain that may or may not be associated with an ongoing tissue-damaging process
neuropathic pain
the physiologic processes related to pain perception
nociception
a pain receptor
nociceptors
drugs that relieve pain by acting on the peripheral nerve endings to inhibit the formation of the prostaglandins that tend to sensitize nerves to painful stimuli; jave analgesic, andtipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects; includes aspirin, and ibuprofen
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he or she says it does
pain
the alleviation of pain or reduction of pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the client
pain management
the amount of pain stimulation a person requires before feeling pain
pain threshold
the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure
pain tolerance
a pain management technique that allows the client to take an active role in managing pain
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
pain  (eg. phantom limb pain, postherpetic neuralgia, carpal tunnel syndrome) that follows damage and/or sensitization of peripheral nerves
peripheral neuropathic pain
pain experienced when an intact properly functioning nervous system sends signals that tissues are damaged
physiological pain
any form of treatment
placebo
the administration of analgesics prior to an invasive or operative procedure in order to treat pain before it occurs
preemptive analgesia
pain percieved to be in one area but whose source is another area
referred pain
interruption of the anterior or posterior nerve root between the ganglion and the cord; generally performed on the cervical nerve roots to alleviate pain of the head and neck
rhizotomy
pain that is in the 7-10 range
severe pain
pain that originates in the skin, muscle, bone, or connective tissue
somatic pain
involves the insertion of a cable that allows the placement of an electrode directly on the spinal cord and is used with nonmalignant pain that has not been controlled with less invasive therapies
spinal cord stimulation (SCS)
severance of the pathways of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system; eliminates vasospasm, improves peripheral blood supply, and is effective in treating painful vascular disorders
sympathectomy
pain that occurs with abnormal connections between pain fibers and the sympathetic nervous system
sympathetically maintained pain
a noninvasive, nonanalgesic pain control technique that allows the client to assist in the management of acute and chronic pain
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
results from stimulation of pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thorax
visceral pain
Experienced when an intact, properly functioning nervous system signals that tissues are damaged, requiring attention and proper care Transient Persistent Subcategories Somatic Visceral
Physiologic Pain
Experienced by people who have damaged or malfunctioning nerves Types Peripheral Central Sympathetically maintained
Neuropathic Pain
Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation
Four Processes involved in nociception
Small diameter (a-delta or C) peripheral nerve fibers carry signals of noxious stimuli to the dorsal horn Signals are modified when they are exposed to the substantia gelatinosa Ion channels on the pre- and postsynaptic membranes serve as gates When open, permit positively charged ions to rush into the second order neurons, sparking an electrical impulse and sending signals of pain to the thalamus Large diameter (A-delta) fibers have inhibitor effect May activate descending mechanism that can inhibit transmission of pain
Gate Control Theory
Stop nociceptor firing Apply topical therapies Address client’s mood Address client’s goals
Clinical Application of Gate Control Theory
Ethnic and cultural values Developmental stage Environment and support people Past pain experiences Meaning of pain Spiritual Social
Factors Affecting Perception of Pain
Comprehensive pain history includes COLDERR Character Onset Location Duration Exacerbation Relief Radiation
Pain assessment subjective data
Associated symptoms Effect on ADLs Past pain experiences Meaning of the pain to the person Coping resources Affective response 
Additional Data obtain
Nonverbal responses to pain Facial expression Vocalizations like moaning and groaning or crying and screaming Immobilization of the body or body part Purposeless body movements Behavioral changes such as confusion and restlessness Rhythmic body movements or rubbing
Pain assessment Objective Data
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