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Every event has a cause. Striving for immediate causes rather than searching for final causes.
Determinism
Behavior is due to a person\'s decision not external determinants.
Free Will
Relationship between mind and body.
Mind-Body (Mind-Brain)
Mind is seperate from brain. Mind Controls the brain and body.
Dualism
Conscious experience is inseperable from the physical brain.
Monism
Determines roles of heredity and environment in expression of particular behaviors.
Nature-Nurture
1st Psych lab in Germany in 1879. Experiments have 2 elements (Feeling,Sensations).
William Wundt
Cornell University in 1892. Nature of mental experiences.
Edward Titchener
Present stimuli and subjects describe features.
Structuralism
Founder of american psychology. Harvard University. Concerned with actions the mind performs.
William James
How the mind produces various behaviors.
Functionalism
Genetic factors (Drugs,Genetics)
Biological
Result of past actions, not what they think.
Behavioral
Behavior can be understood with scientific methods.
Determinist
Simple responses to simple stimuli. Tested this in animals.
Jacques Loeb
Behavior is how a stimulus triggers a response.
Stimulus Response Psychology
Describing what someone did, not guessing what he was trying to do.
B.F. Skinner
Founder of Behaviorism. Environment molds behavior.
John Watson
Thinking processes and aquiring knowledge.
Cognitive
Consciousness, values and beliefs.
Humanistic
Person feels fulfilled and content.
Peak Experiences
Viewed humans as basically good.
Carl Rogers
Striving for ones full potential.
Self-Actualization
Accepting someone as they are.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Basic needs, safety, psychological needs, then self-actualization.
Hierarchy of Needs/
Abraham Maslow
Uncovering underlying drives and motivations.
Psychodynamic
Sexual motivation to explain behavior.
Sigmund Freud
Guided by individuals ancestors. Saw humans as basically good.
Carl Jung
Guided by ambitions.
Alfred Adler
1.)Develop Hypothesis 2.)Test Hypothesis 3.)Measure Results 4.)Develop Conclusions
Research Methods
Entire group being tested.
Population
Closely resembles the population.
Representative Sample
Everyone has equal chance of being selected.
Random Sample
Experimenter unintentionally distorts procedures or expected outcome.
Experimenter Bias
Observer records data without knowing predictions.
Blind Observer
Pill with no known pharmacological effects.
Placebo
Either observer or participants are unaware who received which treatment.
Single-Blind Study
Both observers and participants are unaware of who received treatments.
Double-Blind Study
Study subjects in natural conditions.
Naturalistic Observation
In depth description of individual.
Case History
Attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through responses to questions.
Surveys
Measure relationship between 2 variables.
Correlation
Measure 2 variables without controlling either.
Correlation Study
Mathematical relationship between 2 variables.+1 to -1.
Correlation Coefficient
Investigator manipulates at least 1 variable. Can prove cause and effect.
Experiment
Experimenter changes or controls.
Independent Variable
Item measured to see how it is affected.
Dependent Variable
Told what is expected and agree to continue with study.
Informed Consent
Must be ensured among participants.
Confidentiality
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