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something?/AlCl3
add top part, sometimes rearrangement
Zn(Hg)/HCl ORNH2NH2, OH-
gets rid of ketones, completely
HNO3/H2SO4
Add NO2
1)Sn, HCl/ 2)OH-
turns Os into Hs on amines.
op directors
OH, CH3, C2H5, OCH3, NH2, NO, HALOGENS
meta directors
CN, SO3H, COOH, CF3, Aldehydes, ketones, NO2, NR2
peroxide initiator/heat
polymerizes alkenes to make multiply
D2/Pt
adds in syn fashion like H2
HIO4 (periodic acid)
it will cleave OH groups on adjacent carbons and oxidize them into aldehydes and ketones.
Strong electrolytes
strong acids, strong bases, salts (soluble)
Strong acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Strong bases
NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, Ca(OH)2
Weak electrolytes
weak acids and weak bases
Weak acids
HF, HC2H3O2, H2CO3, H3PO4, others
Weak bases
NH3, pyridine, and other compounds containing nitrogen
Sodium acetate is a salt of a strong base and a weak acid. The solution will be a weak base. It is soluble in water (70g/100ml). Strong electrolytes are either strong acids or soluble salts. (All compounds containing alkali metal ions, ammonium, nitrate, or acetate ions are soluble).
HBr/ROOR
adds h and br anti markovnikov
1) BH3, THF/ 2)H2O2, OH-
adds OH trans to substitute (cis with H atom)
Excess D2O/DCl (Catalytic)
Replace alpha Hs (to carbonyl) with Ds
alkene reacts with NBS/ROOR
NBS will react with allylic H and replace with Br one away from alkene.
1) 3 NaNH2, NH3/ 2)H2O
AlkYNE !!!!!
HgSO4/H2SO4, H2O
Adds a H and OH. across ene bond.
NaBH4/CH3OH
reducing agent. alde/ketones >>>> OHs!
1) LiAlH4, Et2O/ 2) H2O
reduces everything!!  ketones, aldehydes, esters, nitriles, acids!@
K2Cr2O7/H+
reduces! beneze metyl -> Acids!
NO2  >> 1) Sn, HCl / 2) OH-
NO2 ----> NH2
Butene  CH3COOOH>
turns ene portion in to EPOXIDE!!!! WTF?!@
PCC/CH2CL2
mild oxidizing... 1o OHs > Alde2o OHs > Ketones
Ester!?? vs. ETHER
ester .. RCOORETHER ... ROR H = BALANCED
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