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Parole
A conditional Release from confinement which allows an individual to serve the remainder of a sentence outside of prison.
Amendments
Modifications or changes made for the better, such as amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Probation
A sentencing option for anindividual convicted of a criminal offense.
Framework of Government
Dividing the lawmaiking power among three branches of government. each branch is seperate and has the power to restrain the other branches.
Sixth Amendment
  • Right to be told of charges when arrested
  • Right to a speedy trial
  • Right to a public trial by an impartial jury.
  • Right to confront witnesses
  • Right to council.
First Amendment
  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom of the press
  • Freedom of assembly
  • Right to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Eighth Amendment
  • Freedom from excessive bail
  • Freedom from cruel and unusual punishments.
Fourteenth Amendment
  • Basic right of a defendant in a judicial proceeding
  • The requisites for trial (due process)
  • The right to equal protection of the laws
Fifth Amendment
  • Freedom from being tried twice for the same crime (double jeapordy)
  • Freedom from self-incrimination
Fourth Amendment
  • Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
Preliminary Hearing
A screening procedure used in felony cases to determine if there is enough evidence to hold a defendant for trial.
Arrest
Taking s person onto custody in a case, and in the manner authorized by the law.
Sentencing
A judgement that is formally pronounced by the court upon a defendantafter conviction in a criminal trial.
Trial Courts
Reffered to as the lower courts; receive evidence and consider cases involving criminal activity or cival disputes.
U.S. Constitution
Effective in 1789 upon ratification by 9 of the 13 states (all remaining states ratified it by may 1790) today the U.S. Constitution remains the longest lasting written constitution in the world.
Grand Jury
A body of a set number of citizens from within the county who are sworn to recieve complaints and accusations in criminal cases; repsponsible for determining if there is sufficient cause to believe a person has committed a crime and should be made to stand trial.
Arraignment
Legal procedure where the court informs defendants of the nature of the charges against them and of their constitutional rights to have councel, to plead guilty or not guilty, and to have a jury trial.
Due Process
A course of legal proceedings according to the rules and principles which have been established by the governments basic rights of a defendant in judicial proceedings and the request for a fair trial.
Right to Bail
A defendants constitutional right to reasonable bail to permit the unhampered preperation of a defense before trial.
Competent Court
Any court civil or criminal having authority to handle a particular case.
Bail
A security deposited with a competent court or magistrate to ensure that the accused person will appear for trial when summond.
Appellate Courts
REffered to as the higher courts of the judicial system; hear appeal's from lower trial courts.
Trial
A formal judicial examination and determination of issues (law or fact) between parties.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Constitution
A written document that embodies the basic laws of a nation or state.
Magistrate
An officer of teh court having power to issue a warrant for the arrest of a person chargedvwith a public offense.
Indictment
An accusation in writing formally charging a person with a crime or public offense.
Appeals
Requests to a higher court to review or revise the decisions made by a lower court.
The Branches of Government
  • Executive Branch
  • Legislative Branch
  • Judicial Branch
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