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adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
tropic, protein; anterior pituitary; increase growth & secretory activity of adrenal ctx
aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)
steroid; adrenal cortex; kidney/increase Na+ reabsorption to increase b.p.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
protein; posterior pituitary; kidney/water retention
atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
peptide; heart; kidney/increase urination to decrease blood pressure
calcitonin
protein; thyroid (thyroid C cells); bone, kidney; lowers serum [Ca2+]
cortisol (glucocorticoid)
steroid; adrenal cortex; longer-term stress response; increase blood [glucose]; increase protein catabolism; decrease inflammation & immunity; many other
epinephrine
modified amino acid; adrenal medulla; sympathetic stress response (rapid)
erythropoietin
protein; kidney; bone marrow/increase RBC synthesis
estrogen
steroid; ovaries/placenta; female characteristics, endometrial growth
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
gonadotropic, protein; anterior pituitary; ovary/follicle development, testes/spermatogenesis
glucagon
protein; endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans) (α cells); increase blood [glucose]/decrease glycogen & fat storage
growth hormone (GH)
protein; anterior pituitary; increase bone & muscle grwoth, increase cell turnover rate
insulin
protein; endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans) (β cells); decrease blood [glucose]/increase glycogen & fat storage; absent or ineffective in diabetes mellitus
luteinizing hormone (LH)
gonadotropic, protein; anterior pituitary; ovary/ovulation, testes/testosterone synth.
oxytocin
protein; posterior pituitary; breast/milk letdown, uterus/contraction
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
protein; parathyroids; bone, kidney, small intestine/raises serum [Ca2+]
progesterone
steroid; ovaries/placenta; endometrial secretion, pregnancy
prolactin
protein; anterior pituitary; mammary gland/milk production
releasing and inhibiting factors
peptides; hypothalamus; anterior pituitary/modify activity
sex steroids
steroid; adrenal cortex; not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization of feminization
somatostatin (SS)
protein; endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans) (δ cells); inhibits many digestive processes
testosterone
steroid; testes; male characteristics, spermatogenesis
thymosin (children onlin)
protein; thymus; T cell development during childhood
thyroid hormone (TH, thyroxine)
modified amino acid; thyroid; child
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
tropic, protein; anterior pituitary; thyroid/increase synthesis & release of TH
growth hormone (GH, somatotropin)
bone and muscle growth; low GH= dwarfism; ^ GH=gigantism; ^GH in adults=acromegaly
catecholamines
epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
epinephrine
  • medulla 
  • adrenaline
  •  ^conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle
  • ^metabolic rate
  • ^rate and strenght of heartbeat
  • release of lipids by adipose
  • a neurotransmitter
melatonin
pineal gland; circadian rhythyms; antagonistic to MSH
renin
  • kidney
  • produced when blood volume falls
  • renin>angiotensinogen>angiotensin I>angiotensisn II
  • angiotensisn II stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
erythropoeitin (EPO)
kidney; glycoproten that stimulates RBC production
FSH
follicle stimulating hormone; tropic; anterior pituitary.Females-causes maturitation of ovarian follicles that begin secreting estrogenMales-stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules and sperm poroduction
glucagon
alpha cells; liver; islets of langerhans; antagonistic to insulin
prolactin
direct; anterior pituitary; stimulates milk production in mammary glands
parathyroid hormone
causes bone to release Ca into bloodstream; causes kidneys to conserve Ca and intestinal anbsorption of Ca; antagonistic to calcitonin
androgens
cortical sex hormone
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