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The basic goals of psychotherapy
- Understand their condition
- Learn how to identify thoughts and behaviors that adversely affect their condition
- Explore relationships and experiences
- Learn better ways to cope and solve problems
- Learn how to set relistic gals for themselves
Definition of Ego
The part of the mind that contains conscious (I myself) but also has unconsious tasks
THe ego has defense mechanisms and uses them when the id behavior conflicts with reality, social norms or personal morality
Definition of Id

The id is unconscious and primal
The id is responsible for drives involving food, sex, aggression and immediate satisfaction
Definition of superego
Both conscious and unconscious
Act as conscience and can be punishing (guilt, shame, anxiety, inferiority, etc)
The superego is the symbolic representaion of father and internalized social norms
Definition of transference
-Refers to the feelings a patient has towards the therapist
-the feeling the patient has had towards people from his/her past and put the therapist in the shoes of a significant person in their lives
Definition of Countertransference
- The feeling the clinician has toward the patient
- Based on the therapist's own past experience
Common psychotherapeutic interventions
- Interpretation - making sth conscious that was previously unconscious
- Confrontation - addressing a patient's avoidance or addressing sth a patient is reluctant to address, rarely aggressive
- Clarification
- Encouragement to elaborate - tell me more about your mother
- Empathic validation - express attunement with the patient's subjective experience
- Advice and Praise - precribing or reinforcing activities
- Affirmation - Yes I see
Psychoanalysis: the most utilized intervention in psychoanalysis
- Utilize analysis of transference & free association
- The most utilized intervention is interpretation
Psychoanalysis: the ultimate goal of psychoanalysis
Neuroses can be treated through bringing the unconscious wishes and repressed memories to consciousness in psychoanalytic treatment
The type of patient who may benefit from psychoanalysis
Patients who failed psychotherapy and psychopharmacology in the past
Psychodynamic therapy: the most utilized interventions
- Interpretation, confrontation, and clarification
Psychodynamic therapy: the ultimate goals of psychodynamic therapy
Partially reorganize and improve patient's defense mechanisms and to improve insight into interpersonal conflict
The goal is NOT to completely resolve unconsious conflict
Psychodynamic therapy: the main focus of sessions in psychodynamic therapy
The therapist focuses on day-to-day situations that may illustrate the unconscious conflict
Supportive psychotherapy: the most utilized interventions
Encouragement to elaborate, empathic validation, advice/praise and affirmation
Supportive psychotherapy: the type of patient who would most likely benefit from supportive therapy
Patients in crisis or with severe personality disorders who would be unable to tolerate uncomfortable feelings faced in more expressive types of therapy
Supportive psychotherapy: the characteristics of the therapist in supportive therapy
Warm, friendly and provide strong example for how to react/cope with extremes of emotion
Behavioral therapy: the theory supporting behaviral intervention
Symptoms may be a consequence of maladaptive behaviors or maladaptive responses to stimuli
Behavioral therapy: techniques employed in behavior therapy including relaxation training and various forms of exposure therapy
- Relaxation training: control somatic complaints such as progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing
- Exposure - face your fear SLOWLY
- Flooding - face your fear NOW, use for phobia
- Behavioral modification: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequences (ABC)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy: The theory supporting CBT intervention
Unrealistic and negative thoughts cause distress
Remission rate of 85%
Cognitive-behavioral therapy: the ultimate goals of CBT
CBT aims to reduce unrealistic and negative thoughts that cause distress
CBT aim to catch those thoughts and examine evidence for each thought and come up with a more balanced thought
Cognitive-behavioral therapy: how core beliefs influence automatic thoughts
Core beliefs about oneself and the world are learned in childhood
They contribute to automatic thought (cognitive distortions) that cause distress
Cognitive-behavioral therapy: how CBT aims to improve symptoms
CBT aim to catch those thoughts and examine evidence for each thought and come up with a more balance thought
Cognitive-behavioral therapy: the goals and uses of dialectical behavior therapy
- Use for borderline personality disorder
- Aims to help the patient manage extremes of emotion, to self-monitor their feelings and help the patient find a middle-ground between the rational mind and the emotional mind
Group therapy: the definition
Type of therapy that involves sessions guided by one or more therapists and attended by several patients who confront their problem together
Group therapy: goals of group therapy and how these goals are attained
- Immediate feedback to and from one's peers - to improve awareness of the way one relates to others
- Observation of patient in realistic seeting - "how does this patient actually relate to other people?
Group therapy: exclusion criteria for group therapy
- Motivation to change and ability to interact with a group of peers
Group therapy: Therapist's role
Define group goals, establish and maintain therapeutic environment
Group therapy: the goals of social skill training
- To improve coping in daily life, how to relate to others and how to complete daily tasks
Systemic therapy: the definition
- A dysfucntinal system may lead to symptoms in one or all members of the system
- Ex: A couple, a family
Systemic therapy: the ultimate goals of systemic therapy
- Improve function as a unit
- Improve function as individual
- Identify common goals
- Employ realistic expectations for others
Systemic therapy: the therapist's role
The therapist use clarification and attempts to educate regarding problem solving and communication
Contraindications for systemic therapy
- When one partner clearly wants a divorce
- When one partner has become paranoid or psychotic and this is a clear deviation from normal
- When either partner is unwilling to cooperate with therapy due to anxiety or fear
- When there is a pattern of domestic violence
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