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The fluid medium --, makes up --% of the body
water
55-75
Electrolytes are --and-- --present in body fluids
positive
negative
ions
--regulate the electrical charge on -- and flow of --across their--
electrolytes
cells
water
membranes
--is the total water volume, is found within the individual cells
intracellular fluid
makes up about 2/3 body fluids
intracellular fluid
--is the remaining 1/3 which includes blood plasma, lymph tissue fluid specialized cells like cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, serous fluid, and aqueous humor
extracellular fluid
--constantly moves from one fluid site in the body to another to another by prossesses of --and--
water
filtration
osmosis
--means that water and dissolved materials are forced from high pressure to lower pressure
filtration
by filtration in the --some plasma is forced out into tissue space called --
cappillaries
tissue fluid
--diffusion of water through a semipermiable membrane. water will move more water to an area with less water
osmosis
human cells or other body fluids contain dissolved substances such as --, --,--and-- which are called --
sugar
salts
acids
bases
solutes
human cells have --concentration of %
NaCl 0.9
same concentration as human cells
isotonic solution
with lower salt content than human cells
hypotonic solution
has a higher salt concentration than human cells
hypertonic solution
--is an abnormal increase in the amount of tissue fluid which is -- or--
edema
localized
systemic
--follows injury and inflammation of a body part
localized edema
--is a result of an imbalance between the movement of water out of and into the capillaries between filtration and osmosis
systemic edema
most of the water the body requires comes from -- average is --
ingestion of liquids
1600mL/day
the average water from -- is about 700 mL
food
the last source of water intake is from the product of --about --mL/day
cell respiration
200
total intake of water per day should be about --for homeostasis
2500 mL/day
Most of the water lost fromĀ  the body is in the form of -- this average is about --mL/day
urine
1500 mL
The second biggest water loss is from --and is about --
sweat
500
Third is the water from -- at about --
water vapor in exhaled air
300
Another 200 mL is lost from
feces
any increase in water output must be compensated by --
an increase in intake
The -- in the brain contains --that detect the osmolarity of the body
hypothalmus
osmoreceptors
--is the concentration of dissolved materials present in the fluid
osmolarity
--raises the osmolarity of the body (there isĀ less water in proportion to the amount of dissolved materials)
dehydration
to correct increased osmolarity we feel the sensation of --then we--fluids are absorbed in the --and--then osmolarity --
thirst
drink
stomach
small intestines
decreases
as osmolarity returns to normal the --
sensation of thirst diminishes
the --is also involved in water balance because of the production of--
hypothalmus
ADH
In state of dehydration, the --stimulates the --to produce --
hypothalmus
posterior pituitary
ADH
ADH --the reabsorption of --by the --
increases
water
kidney tubules
water is returned to the -- to perserve --and --decreases
blood
blood volume
urine output
--from the adrenal cortex also helps regulate --
aldosterone
water output
aldosterone--the reabsorption of --by the -- and --from the --follows the --back to the --excretion of--
increases
Na+ ions
kidney tubules
water
renal filtration
blood
K+
several factors that may contribute to water loss
excessive sweating
hemmorage
diarrhea
vomiting
burns
fever
over compensation of fluidsmay become symptomatic and is called
water intoxication
in water intoxication the --of blood -- and there is too much water in proportion to the --
osmolarity
decreases
electrolytes
symptoms are dizziness abdominal cramps nausea and lethargy
water intoxication
treatment of water intoxication
restrict fluids till kidneys can excrete the excess water
-- is secreted in the -- when blood volume or pressure increases
ANP
Atria
--decreases the reabsorption of Na+ by the -- which -- urine output of --and--
ANP
kidneys
increases
Na+
Water
--and--regulates the blood levels of calcium and phosphate
PTH
Calcitronin
PTH --the reabsorption of -- and -- from bones, and --their reabsorption from -- in the --
increases
calcium
phosphate
increases
food
small intestines
--are chemicals that dissolve in water and dissoiate into their -- and --
electrolytes
positive
negative
most electrolytes are the --,--, and-- found in all body fluids
inorganic salts
acids
bases
most organic comounds are
non-electrolytes
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