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Avascular Necrosis
Bone death caused by loss of blood supply.
Myocarditis
Inflammation of the myocardium.
Osteomyelitis
An infection in bone tissue.
INR normal value
1.0 - 2.0

INR stands for International Normalized Ratio
Normal amount of blood drainage after hip replacement (24 hours Post-Op).
200 - 500 mL
Prophylaxis
Any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease.
Cholecystectomy
Removal of the gallbladder.
Aplastic anemia
The loss of the bones ability to produce new blood cells (reds, whites, and platelets).
Allograft
Tissue harvested from a donor for use in another person
Autograft
Tissue harvested from one area of the body and used for transplantation to another area of the body
Crepitus
A grating sound or sensation by rubbing bony fragments together.
Disarticulation
Amputation through a joint.
RICE
Acronym for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.
Flexion
A position that is made possible by the joint angle decreasing. (ex. hand being brought toward the shoulder)
Extension
A position that is made possible by the joint angle increasing. (ex. hand being brought away from the shoulder)
Abduction
Moving away from the body.
Adduction
Moving closer to the body.
Radiculopathy
Describes pain, and other symptoms like numbness, tingling, and weakness in your arms or legs that are caused by a problem with your nerve roots.  A type of "referred pain."
Fasciculation
Involuntary twitch of muscle fibers.
Cancellous Bone
Lattice-like bone structure; trabecular bone.
Effusion
Excess fluid in joint.
Lamellae
Mature compact bone structures that form concentric rings of bone matrix; lamellar bone.
Paresthesia
Sbnormal sensation (eg, burning, tingling, numbness).
Spondylolysis
A stress fracture affecting the Pars of a spinal bone.  Usually seen in the L5 or L4 verterbrae.
Spondylolisthesis
Anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column.
Genuvalgum
aka Knock Knees

Knees are close together and malleoli are > 7.5cm apart
Pavlik Harness
Harness used to correct Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in children under 6 months of age.
SCFE
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis - Femoral head is displaced from femoral neck.
Bisphosphonates
Fosamax, Actonel, Boniva
inhibit resorption of bone by inhibiting osteoclast activity - should be taken on empty stomach, while sitting upright, with a full glass of water.
Alopecia
Hair Loss
Anaplasia
Cells that lack normal cellular characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin; usually, anaplastic cells are malignant.
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death
Biologic response modifier (BRM) therapy
Use of agents or treatment methods that can alter the immunologic relationship between the tumor and the host to provide a therapeutic benefit.
Brachytherapy
Delivery of radiation therapy through internal implants.
Cytokines
Substances produced by cells of the immune system to enhance production and functioning of components of the immune system.
Dysplasia
Bizarre cell growth resulting in cells that differ in size, shape, or arrangement from other cells of the same type of tissue.
Extravasation
Leakage of medication from the veins into the subcutaneous tissues.
Graft-versus-disease effect
The donor cell response against the malignancy; a desirable response.
Hyperplasia
Increase in the number of cells of a tissue; most often associated with periods of rapid body growth.
Metaplasia
Conversion of one type of mature cell into another type of cell.
Myelosuppression
Suppression of the blood cell–producing function of the bone marrow.
Nadir
Lowest point of white blood cell depression after therapy that has toxic effects on the bone marrow.
Neoplasia
Uncontrolled cell growth that follows no physiologic demand.
Neutropenia
Abnormally low absolute neutrophil count.
Stomatitis
Inflammation of the oral tissues, often associated with some chemotherapeutic agents.
Thrombocytopenia
Decrease in the number of circulating platelets; associated with the potential for bleeding.
Tumor-specific antigen (TSA)
Protein on the membrane of cancer cells that distinguishes the malignant cell from a benign cell of the same tissue type.
Vesicant
Substance that can cause tissue necrosis and damage, particularly when extravasated.
Xerostomia
Dry oral cavity resulting from decreased function of salivary glands.
Grading
Identification of the type of tissue from which the tumor originated and the degree to which the tumor cells retain the functional and structural characteristics of the tissue of origin.
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