Cloned from: Digestive System

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1. What is the continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus through the ventral body cavity called?
GI tract aka Alimentary Canal
2. What is chemical digestion?
The large carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid molecules in food are split into smaller molecules by hydrolysis
3. Where does mechanical digestion take place?
Mouth and stomach
4. Digested materials that were not absorbed leave the body through what process?
Defecation
5. The eliminated material that you defecate is known as what?
Feces aka stool
6. The mucous membrane that lines the GI tract is known as what?
Mucosa
7. The oral cavity is formed by what structures?
Cheeks, hard and soft palates, tongue
8. The fleshy folds surrounding the opening of the mouth are known as what?
Labia or lips
9. What is a salivary gland?
Any cell or organ that releases saliva into the oral cavity
10. What controls salivation?
Nervous system
11. What is gastroenterology?
Medical specialty that deals with the structure, function, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the stomach and intestines
12. What are the organs of the GI tract?
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
13. What are the 6 functions of the digestive system?
Ingestion, secretion, mixing and propulsion, digestion, absorption, defecation
14. What is gastro esophageal reflux disease?
a disease where the lower esophageal sphincter fails to close after food has entered the stomach so the stomach contents back up into the esophagus; can be exacerbated by alcohol and smoking
15. What are the 4 main regions of the stomach?
Cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
16. Wtion of the hat are the accessory organs involved in the funcsmall intestine?
Pancreas, liver, gall bladder
17. What are the 3 major digestive hormones?
Gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin
18. What is the main function of the small intestine?
Absorption
19. What is metabolism?
Refers to all the chemical reactions of the body
20. What is metabolic rate?
The overall rate at which metabolic reactions use energy
21. What are the nutrients the body needs to survive?
Water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals
22. What causes tooth decay?
Gradual demineralization of enamel and dentin by acid producing bacteria
23. What are vitamins?
Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism
24. What are minerals?
Inorganic elements that occur naturally in the earth’s crust
25. What is the difference between fasting and starvation?
Fasting means going without food form many hours or a few days, whereas starvation implies weeks or months of food deprivation or inadequate food intake
26. What happens during digestion?
Polysaccharides and disaccharides are hydrolyzed into the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galaxies; the latter two are then converted into glucose
27. How many calories should a normal teenager or adult intake per day?
Between 1600 and 2800 Calories per cay
28. What are fat-soluble vitamins?
They are absorbed with fat and include vitamins ADEK
29. What is achalasia?
A condition caused by malfunction of the myenteric plexus in which the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax normally as the food approaches
30. What is borborygmus?
The rumbling noise caused by gas propulsion through the intestines
31. What is the alimentary canal?
An AKA for the digestive tract
32. Name the retroperitoneal organs
Kidneys and pancreas
33. What is the GI tract lined with?
Mucus membranes
34. What is the study of the anus and rectum referred to as?
Proctology
35. What makes up the greatest percentage of saliva?
Water, 99%
36. How many primary teeth do humans have?
20
37. What are the accessory organs of digestion?
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
38. What is the largest serous membrane in the body?
Peritoneum
39. What is peritonitis?
Acute inflammation of the peritoneum
40. During normal swallowing the soft palate and uvula are drawn superiorly preventing foods and liquids from entering what area?
The nasal cavity
41. What are the mumps?
An inflammation and enlargement of the parotid glands caused by a viral infection
42. What is the term used to describe the rhythmic wave of contraction that moves material through the alimentary canal?
Peristalsis
43. What is the flap at the distal end of the pharanx that diverts food/air into either the esophagus/trachea?
epiglottis
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