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extraction used to wash out unwanted impurities rather than to isolate a pure product
1. BH3 or B2H6 2. H2O2/H2O reacts
adds H and OH to double bonds to produce anti-Markovnikov syn alcohols
6 polar AAs
serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, aspargine, glutamine
acidic and basic amino acids
at pH = 7.4 (in the body), acidic AAs have net negative charge and basic AAs have net positive charge; both basic and acidic AAs have three pKas; pI for acidic AAs are lower, pI for basic AAs are high
stationary phase in chromatography
affinity chromatography
column contains beads that are customized to bind to target molecule (i.e. covered with antibodies for molecule, etc.)
aldehyde (O)CH IR absorption
2800 cm^-1 (2)
alkane CH IR absorption
2800-3000 cm^-1
alkyne bp
shorter chain alkynes gases (higher bp than corresponding alkene), internal alkynes and alkenes have higher bp than terminal alkynes
propeylenes substitued at C3 position (2-propenyl)
amide reduction
amides can be reduced with LAH to form amines (no alcohol)
amine IR absorption
3100-3500 cm^-1 sharp
use this prefix for amines if they are in a molecule containing an OH or COOH group
amino acid common enatiomer
L-amino acid (S), NH2 on the left
three benzene attached in a row
aragose gel electrophorersis
separates nucelic acids based on size (all are negatively charged and attracted to anode)
aka aryl, aromatic compounds
Ar-H in H NMR
aromatic CC IR absorption
1475-1625 cm^-1
aromatic CH IR absorption
3000 cm^-1
contain -N3 functinoal group; lose N2 to form nitrenes
Beer's law
A = αbc (α is constant at given wavelength, b is path length)
Benedict's reagant
Cu(OH)2, reduces aldehydes → Cu2O (red precipitate)
benzyl vs. phenyl
phenyl is just -C6H6, benzene is -CH2(C6H6)
bp, mp, and density dependence on chain length and branching in alkane
incr. chain length → incr. bp, mp, density; incr. branching → decr. bp, density (reduces surface area, decr. van der Waals forces)
C=C IR absorption
1650 cm^-1
CA pKa range
usually from 3-6
Calisen condensation
condensation of two esters to produce β-keto ester under basic conditions
RNHC(O)OR' (amide esters); aka urethanes; formed by addition of alcohol to isocyanate (RNCO)
1,4 β glucose
chromatography types (4)
TLC (thin layer) , column, gas, HPLC (high pressure or performance liquid)
cis vs. trans mp and bp
trans have higher mp due to higher symmetry (packing); cis have higher bp due to polarity
cleavage of ethers
cleavage of straight chain ethers is acid catalyzed; cleavage of cyclic ethers can be acid or base catalyzed
reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alkanes
cold dilute KMnO4 reacts
alkenes oxidized to form syn vicinal diols
cold finger
piece of glasssware packed with dry ice or with cold water running through it; used for gas condensation in sublimination purification
column chromatography
same as TLC, but solvent moves through column by gravity
conjugated protein + types (3)
protein + prosthetic group - lipoproteins (lipid prosthetic groups), glycoproteins (carbohydrate prosthetic groups), nucleoproteins (nucleic acid prosthetic groups_
10.5 - 12
coupling constant
in NMR, magnitude of the splitting (J, usually denoted in Hz)
coupling in 13C NMR
no coupling between C atoms, coupling does occur between carbon atoms and the H atoms directly bonded to them
product of CN- with a carbonyl → CN and OH on same C
cyclohexane conformation energies
chair < twisted boat < boat
cyclopentane conformation
loss of COOH as CO2 in β-keto acids and 1,3 diacids
degree of unsaturation (number of double bonds or rings = N)
in compound C(n)H(m), N = ½(2n + 2 - m)
isomers that are non mirror images; may have different physical properties
contain -N2 functional group
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