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10^-12, abbreviated p
1 Å
10^-10 m
6 linear motion formulas
v(avg) = Δx/t = [v(f) + v(o)]/2 ; v = v(o) + at; Δx = v(o)t +½at^2; v(f)^2 = v(o)^2 + 2aΔx; Δx = v(avg)t
absolute pressure in a liquid
P = Patm + ρgh; ρ of water = 10^3
acceleration on object in SHM
a = -(ω^2)x = -kx/m
attractive force that a molecule of a liquid feels towards the molecules of some other substance (like the walls of the container)
Q = 0; ΔU = - W (W done by system)
amp in SI units
A = C/sec
C/s (unit of current)
amu conversion
1 amu = 1.66 x 10^-24 g
angle vector makes with horizontal formula
tan^-1 (Vy/Vx)
angular frequency in SHM
ω = 2πf = 2π/T
Archimede's principle and equation
a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid that it displaces; F(B) = ρ(fluid)V(submerged)g ; ρ of water = 10^3
atm conversion to Pascals
1 atm = 1.013 x 10^5 Pa = 10^5 Pa
B at center of current-carrying loop of wire
B = μ(o)I/2r, where μ(o) = 1.3 x 10^-6 Tm/A
B due to long, straight, current-carrying wire
B = μ(o)I/2πr, where μ(o) = 1.3 x 10^-6 Tm/A
baryon number conservation
aka nucelon number conservation; total number of neutrons + protons stays the same in all rxns
beat frequency of sound
f(beat) = |f1 - f2|
Bernoulli's equation
P + ½ ρv^2 + ρgy = constant; P is absolute pressure of fluid; ρ of water in this equation is 10^3
binding energy formula
B.E. = Δmc^2; where Δm is the mass defect and c^2 = 932 MeV.amu
"ideal radiator" (and thus also an "ideal obsorber" and completely black) approximated by cavity radiation
bulk modulus formula
B = stress/strain = ΔP/(ΔV/V); applies for solid or fluid
bulk vs Young's vs. shear modulus
bulk describes change in volume, Young's describes change in length for force perpendicular to direction of solid motion; shear describes change in length for force parallel to direction of solid motion
C = Q/V
capacitance due to dielectric
C(new) = KC(old)
capacitance of parallel plate capacitor
C = ε(o)A/d, where ε(o) = 9 x 10^-12 F/m
capacitors in parallel
Ceq = C1 + C2
capacitors in series
1/Ceq = 1/C1 +1/C2
cavity radiation
radiation in a cavity within a hot object, approximates blackbody radiation
Celsius to Fahrenheit
T(F) = 9/5T(C) + 32
Celsius to Kelvin
T(K) = T(C) + 273
center or mass eq
X = (m1x1 + m2x2)/(m1 + m2)
central maximum fringe qualitative relationship to slit width in diffraction
as slit becomes narrow, central maximum (bright fringe) becomes wider → central fringe is twice as wide as the bright fringes on either side
centripetal forces
F(c) = mv^2/r
change in sound level
Δβ = 10 log (Ib/Ia)
closed cycle thermodynamic process
ΔU = 0, Q = W (W done by system, Q into system)
attractive force that a molecule of a liquid feels towards other molecules of the same liqiud
concave mirror - object at C
image real, inverted, at C, same size
concave mirror - object at F
no image - parallel rays
concave mirror - object between C and F
image real, inverted, further than C, enlarged
concave mirror - object between mirror and F
image virtual, upright, enlarged
concave mirror - object further than C
image real, inverted, between F and C, reduced
concave vs convex mirror
concave CAVE in (inside surface of sphere, converging), convex bulges out (outside surface of sphere, diverging)
conservation of energy
applies for all conservative forces and elastic collisions; ΔE = ΔK + ΔU = 0
conservative force def (3)
if the work done to move a particle in any round trip path is zero, the force is conservative; if the work needed to move a particle between two points is the same regardless of the path taken, the force is conservative; a force that has an associated PE is conservative
continuity equation
A1v1 = A2v2 = constant
converging vs. diverging lens due to center thickness
converging lenses are thicker at the center, diverging lenses are thinner at the center
cos 30
(rt 3)/2
cos 45
(rt 2)/2
cos 60
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