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How many pairs of peripheral organs?
31
Function of dorsal Ramus
innervate muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the head, neck, and trunk
function of ventral ramus
(more complex) innervates muscles and glands in extremities and lateral and ventral portions of neck and trunk
cervical plexus
innervate muscles and skin of neck, upper shoulders, and part of the head
Brachial plexus
innervate the lower part of shoulder and the entire arm
Lumbar plexus
thigh and leg
Sacral and coccygeal plexus
nearly all of the skin of the leg, posterior thigh muscles, and leg and foot muscles
# of cranial nerve pairs
12
olfactory nerve
sense of smell
optic nerve
visual imformation from the eyes
oculomoter nerve
eye muscles, regulates amount of light entering the eye and help to focus on nearby objects
Trochlear nerve
superior olblique muscles of eye
Trigeminal nerve
sensory- impulses from skin and mucosa of head and teeth
motor- mastication (chewing)
Abducens nerve
eye muscles
facial nerve
sensory information from taste buds of anterior two thirds of the tongue
vestibulocochlear nerve
equilibrium and sensations of hearing
glossopharyngeal nerve
sensory, motor- tongue, pharynx, and carotid sinus
Vagus nerve
BIG!
sensory- pharynx, larynx, trachea, heart, carotid body, lungs, bronchi, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and gallbladder
motor- innervate muscles of pharynx and larynx
accessory nerve
(MOTOR NERVE- "accessory" vagus nerve)
Innervates muscles- thoracic and abdominal viscera, pharynx, larynx, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid
Hypoglossal nerve
motor- innervates muscles of the tongue
sensory- proprioceptors in muscles of the tongue
Define reflex and 2 reflex center locations
action that results from a nerve impulse passing over a reflex arc; predictable response to a stimulus
Cranial reflex- in brain
Spinal- in spinal cord

2 types of reflex
somatic reflex- contraction of skeletal muscles
Autonomic (visceral) reflex- contraction of smooth or cardiac muscle or secretion by glands
Knee jerk
(patellar reflex) extension of the lower leg in response to tapping the patellar tendon; tendon and muscles are stretched, stimulating muscle spindles and initiating conduction over a two-neuron reflex arc
ankle jerk
extension of the foot in response to tapping the achilles tendon; tendon reflex and deep reflex mediated by two-neuron spinal arcs
Major function of autonomic nervous system
regulate heartbeat, smooth muscle contraction, and glandular secretions to maintain homeostasis
Function of sympathetic division
"emergency" system, "fight or flight"
function of parasympathetic division
(dominate controller of most autonomic effectors most of the time)
Acetylcholine- slows heartbeat and promotes digestion and elimination
Receptor potential
-adequate stimulus acts on a receptor
-When threshold is reached, an action potential in the sensory neuron's axon is triggered
-impulses travel to brain and spinal cord
-interpreted as sensation or initiates reflex arc
adaptation
receptor potential decreases over time in response to a continuous stimulus, which leads to a decreased rate of impulse conduction and a decreased intensity of sensation
special senses
smell, taste, vision, hearing , equilibrium
grouped into localized areas or complex organs
general sense
receptors widely distributed, in skin, mucosa, connective tissue, muscles, tendons, joints, and viscera
Exteroceptors (location, function)
on or near body surface (ex. pressure, touch, pain, temp)
Visceroceptors (location, function)
internal, often within body organs, or viscera
provide info about internal environments (ex. pressure, stretch, chemical changes, hunger, thirst)
Proprioceptors (location, function)
Location- skeletal muscles, joint capsules and tendons
Function- provide info on body movement, orientation in space, and muscle stretch
Mechanoreceptors
activated when "deformed", specific shape changed, to generate receptor potential
chemoreceptors
activated by amount/change in concentration of chemicals
Thermoreceptors
activated by changes in temp
nociceptors
activated by intense stimuli that may damage tissue (pain)
photoreceptors
(only in eye) respond to light stimuli
osmoreceptors
changes in concentration of electrolytes, (fluid balance)
Free nerve endings (function)
most widely distributed sensory receptor. primary receptors for pain, heat and cold
Free nerve endings- Acute
sharp, intense, localized pain
Free nerve endings- Chronic
less intense but more persistent dull or aching pain
Free nerve endings- Tactile sensations
skin movement, itch, tickle, disciminative touch
Touch and pressure receptors-
Tactile corpuscle- touch and low-frequency vibration (located in hairless skin areas (nipples, fingertips, and lips)
Bulboid corpuscles- touch,              low-frequency vibrations
Bulbous corpuscles- crude and        persistent touch, some temp.
Lamellar or pacini corpuslces- deep pressure, high-frequency vibration and stretch
Stretch receptors-Muscle spindle
located in perimysium. stretch reflex shortens muscle if length exceeds certain length
Golgi tendon organs
stimulated by excessive contraction, cause muscles to relax
protects muscles from tearing
Olfactory receptors- 4 structures and functions
1. Olfactory cilia
2. Olfactory cells-chemoreceptors; stimulated by gas molecules or chemicals
3. Olfactory epithelium
4. Olfactory receptors-extremely sensitive and easily fatigued
sense of taste- structure and function
Gustatory cells- chemoreceptors
each taste bud responds most effectively to one of 5 primary taste sensation (sour, sweet, bitter, unami, and salty)
Inner ear structure and function
1. vestibule and semicircular canals- balance
2. cochlea- hearing
3. endolymph- clear, potassium-rich fluid filling the membranous labyrinth
4.perilymph- fluid surrounds the membranous labyrinth
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