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A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
Developmental psychology
Heredity (nature) and the environment (nurture) are working together as we develop over time.
(clearly working together) happens so fast you cannot separate the two.   “Heredity deals the cards;               environment plays the hand.” Psychologist Charles Brewer (1990)
Nurture via Nature
Current research suggests continuous development is more likely the case  
  • Stages are:
    • Orderly sequence in development that depends on maturation.
    • Organized around a theme.
    • Qualitatively different from each other.
    • Sequential (All children go through the same stages in the same order.
    • Susceptible to environmental influences (can be sped up or slowed down due to the environment).
  • Continuous development
    • Interplays with biology.
    • Smooth and continuous changes in behavior.
Stage development vs. Continuous development
First two weeks, a period of rapid cell devison The fertilized egg Develops into an embryo
Zygote

    • the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month
Embryo
    • the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Fetus

Anything that can cause harm to a prenatal baby. Teratogens that are within your control are the most harmful.
    • agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Teratogens
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking
      • symptoms include facial misproportions
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

  • Born to perceive and learn
  • Born to be social
Capacities of newborns
    • human voices and faces, face like images-->
smell and sound of mother
Preferences

tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek
Rooting reflex

    • Social smiles at pleasant stimuli
Smiling

Biological growth, Growth processes that allow you to walk, talk, memory.
    • biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior
    • relatively uninfluenced by experience
Maturation

  • Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)
    • Studied the development of the mind of a child, called Cognitive Development.
    • Cognition : All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating.
Cognitive Development

§   a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Schemas

(Birth to 2 years) Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing)
Sensorimotor stage

An object continues to exist even when not visable
        • the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Object permanence

fear of strangers that infants commonly display
    • beginning by about 8 months of age
Stranger anxiety

(2 years to 6 years) Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning   Serious lacking of logical reasoning
Preoperational stage

The child can only see the world from their own view point the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view
Egocentrism

people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
Theory of the Mind

(About 7 to 11 years) Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
Concrete operational stage

An object appears the same despite its change in shape or form. (beaker example)  
        • the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
 
Conservation

Able to perform math easier, 12+ 4, 16-4 will answer almost immediately, before this stage they would treat it as a new problem.
Mathematical Transformations

(About 12 through Adulthood) Abstract reasoning
Formal operational stage

    • an emotional tie with another person
    • shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Attachment

Touch and contact was more important than food.
    • Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother
Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) Identity
Harry Harlow’s Surrogate Mother experiments
age                 Stage                      Description of Task Infancy         Trust vs. mistrust         If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year)                                   develop a sense of basic trust.   Toddler         Autonomy vs. shame   Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)                                  and doubt      do things for themselves, or they           doubt their abilities. Preschooler    Initiative vs. guilt          Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years)                                  and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Elementary     Competence vs.       Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-       inferiority                  themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty)                                     inferior.
Erikson's stages of psychological development

§              Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) §         a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy §         said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame Toddler (2nd year) – Autonomy-   Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves Shame- If they have shame they doubt their abilities
Autonomy vs Shame

(3-5 years) Initiative – Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry put plans. Guilt – They feel guilty about efforts to be independent
Initiative vs. guilt

6 years to puberty Competence Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks Inferiority If they feel at tasks they feel inferior
Competence vs. inferiority

      • Adolescence (teens to 20s)
      • Identity Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and integrating them to form a single identity
      • Role confusion They become confused about who they are
      • one’s sense of self
      • the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
        • Who am I?
        • Where am I going?
Identity vs. role confusion

(20s to 40s) Intimacy – Young adults struggle to form close relationships and gain the capacity of intimate love Isolation – They feel isolated
Intimacy vs. Isolation

(40’s to 60’s) Gernerativity – The middle aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work. Stagnation – They lack purpose
Gernerativity vs. stagnation

(late 60’s and up) When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
Integrity vs. despair
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