Cloned from: General Nutrition

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Daily Value
reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
a systematic plan to identify and correct potential microbial hazards in the manufacturing, distribution, and commercial use of food products
Health Claims
statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition
Heme
the iron-holding part of the hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins. About 40% of the iron in fish, meat, and poultry is bound in heme.
High
20% or more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient per serving.
High Fiber
5 g or more fiber per serving.
High Potency
100% or more of the Daily Value for the nutrient in a single supplement and for at least 2/3 of the nutrients in a multinutrient supplement
Homeostasis
the maintenance of constant internal conditions by the body's control systems.
Hunger
the painful sensation caused by a lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior.
Hydrogenation
a chemical process by which hydrogens are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more saturated and resistant to oxidation
Imitation Foods
foods that substitute for and resemble another food, but are nutritionally inferior to it with respect to vitamin, mineral, or protein content.
Impaired glucose tolerance or Prediabetes
blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes
Indigestion
incomplete or uncomfortable digestion usually accompanied by pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, intestinal gas, or belching
Indirect/Incidental/Accidental Additives
substances that can get into food as a result of contact with foods during growing, processing, packaging, storing, cooking, or some other stage before the foods are consumed
Insoluble fibers
indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
management of pests using a combination of natural and biological controls and few or no pesticides
Intentional Food Additive
additives intentionally added to foods, such as nutrients, colors, and preservatives
Calorie Free
fewer than 5 kcal per serving
Kwashiorkor
a form of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) that results either from inadequate protein intake or, more commonly, from infections.
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian
people who include milk, milk products, and eggs, but exclude meat, poultry, fish, and seafood from their diets
Lactovegetarians
people who include milk and milk products, but exclude meat, poultry, fish, seafood, and eggs from their diet
Less/Fewer/Reduced
at least 25% less of a given nutrient or calories than the comparison food
Let-down reflex
the reflex that forces milk to the front of the breast when the infant begins to nurse
Light/Lite
one-third fewer calories than the comparison food; 50% or less of the fat or sodium than the comparison food
Limiting Amino Acid
the essential amino acid found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body. Four that are likely to be: Lysine, Methionine, Threonine, and Tryptophan
Lipids
a family of compounds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. Characterized by insolubility in water.
Lipoproteins
clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph and blood
Macrobiotic diets
extremely restrictive diets limited to a few grains and vegetables; based on metaphysical beliefs and not on nutrition
Macrominerals
essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts larger than 5 g
Malnutrition
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients
Mammary glands
glands of the female breast that secrete milk
Marasmus
a form of protein energy malnutrtions that results from a severe deprivation or impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals
Margin of Safety
(food additives) a zone between the concentration normally used and that at which a hazard exists.
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Meals on Wheels
a nutrition program that delivers food for the elderly to their homes
Meat replacement
products formulated to look and taste like meat, fish, or poulyry; usually made of textured vegetable protein
Metabolism
the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells
MFP Factor
a factor associated with the digestion of meat, fish, and poultry that enhances nonheme iron absorption
Micelles
tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion; most contain bile salts and the product of lipid digestion, including fatty acids, monoglycerids, and cholesterol
Minerals
inorganic elements. Some are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
Nitrogen balance
the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time
Nonessential nutrients
amino acids that the body can synthesize
Nutrients
chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues.
Nutrition
the science of foods and the nutrients and other substances thy contain, and of their actions with the body. Also the social, economic, cultural, and physiological implications of food and eating
Neuropeptide Y
a chemical produced in the brain that stimulates appetite, diminishes energy expenditure, and increases fat storage
Nutrition assessment
a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical examinations; and laboratory tests
Nutrition screening
the use of preliminary nutrition assessment techniques to identify people who are malnourished or are at risk for malnutrition
Nutritional genomics
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients
Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)
the administration of a simple solution of sugar, salt, and water, taken by mouth to treat dehydration caused by diarrhea
Organic (Agriculture)
crops grown and processed according to USDA regulations defining the use of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, preservatives, and other chemical ingredients
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