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Cloned from: General Nutrition

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Overnutrition
excess energy or nutrients
Overweight
body weight above some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height
Pasteurization
heat processing of food that inactivates some, but not all, microorganisms in the food; not a sterilization process. Bacteria that cause spoilage are still present
Peak bone mass
the highest attainable bone size and density for an individual, developed during the first three decades of life
Pellagra
the niacin-deficiency disease
Preservatives
antimicrobial agents, antioxidants, and other additives that retard spoilage or maintain desired qualities, such as softness in baked goods
Probiotics
microbial food ingredients that are beneficial to health.
Prebiotics
Nondigestible food ingredients that encourage the growth of favorable bacteria
Progressive overload principle
the training principle that a body system, in order to improve, must be worked at frequencies, durations, or intensities that gradually increase physical demands
Proof
a way of stating the percentage of alcohol in distilled liquor 100 proof= 50%
Protein turnover
the degradation and synthesis of protein
Protein Energy Malnutrition
a deficiency of protein, energy, or both including kwasiorkor, marasmus, and instances when they overlap
Protein sparing action
the action of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people (95% of the population) which is a goal for dietary intake by individuals
Reference protein
a standard against which to measure the quality of other proteins
Rickets
the vitamin D deficiency disease in children characterized by inadequate mineralization of bone
Salt sensitivity
a characteristic of individuals who respond to a high salt intake with an increase in blood pressure
Satiating
having the power to suppress hunger and inhibit eating
Satiation
the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating. Determines how much food is consumed during a meal
Satiety
the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. Determines how much time passes between meals
Scurvy
the vitamin C deficiency disease
Secondary deficiency
a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys nutrient
Soluble fibers
indigestible food components that dissolve in water to form a gel
Structure-function claims
statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body
Supplements
pills, capsules, tablets, liquids, or powders that contain vitamins, minerals, herbs, or amino acids; intended to increase dietary intake of these substances
Sustainable agriculture
agricultural practices that use individualized approaches appropriate to local conditions so as to minimize technological, fuel, and chemical inputs
Thermic Effect of Food
an estimation of the energy required to process food
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
Microminerals
essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts smaller than 5g
Ultrahigh Temperature treatment (UHT)
sterilizing a food by brief exposure to temperatures above those normally used
Undernutrition
deficient energy or nutrients
Underweight
body weight below some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height
USDA
the federal agency responsible for enforcing standards for the wholesomeness and quality of meat, poultury, and eggs produced in the US; conducting nutrition research; and educating the public about nutrition
Vegans
people who exclude all animal-derived foods from their diets (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products)
Vegetarians
a general term used to describe people who exclude meat, fish, poultry, or other animal derived foods from their diets
vitamins
organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts in the body for health
Vomiting
expulsion of the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus to the mouth
Wasting syndrome
an involuntary loss of more than 10% of body weight, common in AIDS and cancer
Water balance
the balance between water intake and water output
Wernicke-Korsacoff
a neurological disorder typically associated with chronic alcoholism and caused by a deficiency of thiamin
WHO (World Health Organization)
an international agency concerned with promoting health and eradicating disease
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