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What is behaviorism?
Behaviorism in concern with observable, measurable behavior and with those events that stimulate or reinforce the behavior
Who originated the behaviorist movement?
John Watson during the early 1900s.
What is Watson's conditional response?
Conditional response means that a child was "taught" to respond in a particular way  to stimulus that would not naturally elicit that response.
Who was Pavlov?
Pavlov was a Russian Psychologist who conducted classical conditioning response experiments with dogs.
What was Thorndike's contribution to Behaviorism?
In the early 1900s Edward Thorndike developed his own form of behaviorism called Instrumental Conditioning.
What are the two significant conclusions of Thorndike's work?
  • The law of excersice - A conditioned response can be strenghtened by repeating the response (practice)
  • The Law of Effect - rewarded responses are strenghtened while punished responses are weakened
Who was Skinner?
Skinner was the most famous behaviorist. He referred to his approach as Operant Conditioning.
What is Operant conditioning (Skinner)?
Operant Conditioning studied how voluntary behavior could be shaped.
What basic  mechanisms does Operant Conditioning relies on?
  • Reward or positive reinforcement - Students are rewarded for repeating desired responses.
  • Negative Reinforcement - Students escape punishment by repeating desired responses.
  • Extinction - Undesired responses are not reinforced.
  • Punishment - Undesired responses are punished.
Who was Jean Piaget?
Jean Piaget is the most prominent of cognitive psychologists who believe that students develop concepts through a series of stages.  He originated  Stage Theory
What is Stage Theory?
It is the most popular form of child development, which states that children proceed through a fixed, but uneven series of stages of congnitive development.
What is the center of Piaget's theory?
Action and logic versus perception are at the center of Piaget's theory. He believed that children learn through an active involvement with their environment.  He also believed that students have developed a concept when their logical understanding overcomes their perceptual misunderstanding of the concept.
What are Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
  • Sensorimotor (birth to 18 mo.) - Children exhibit poor verbal and cognitive development.
  • Preoperational (18 mo. to 7 years) - Children develop language and are able to solve some problems.  Student thinking is egocentric and have problem developing concepts.
  • Concrete operational (7-12 years) - Student's thinking becomes operational.  This means that concepts become organized and logical, as long as they are working with or around concrete materials or images.
  • Formal operational (12+ years) - Children develop and demonstrate concepts without concrete materials or images.  In this stage students think fully in symbolic terms about concepts.
What is Freud's psychoanalytic theory?
He believes that humans pass through four stages of psychosexual development.
What are the psychosexual stages taught by Freud?
  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic, and
  • Genital
How Freud describes one's personality?
For Frued, the personality itself consists of the id, edo, and superego.According to Freud, an integrated personality develops from the gratification experienced at each of these stages.
What are Eriksen's psychological stages in life?
  • Kindergarten
  • Elementary grades
  • Grades 6-9
  • Grades 10-12
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