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Abolitionist
Term for individuals who opposed and worked to "abolish" slavery in the 1800's
Antebellum
Time period of manners, customs and institutions prior the Civil War
Anti-Federalists
Political party, opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave the federal government too much power
Appomattox Courthouse
Site of the surrender of General Lee's forces to General Grant to end the fighting in the American Civil War
Armistice
The political agreement to stop fighting in WW1 (not the peace treaty of WW1)
Bicameral
A political system based on two legislative bodies (Senate & House of Representatives)
Bill of Rights
Collective name for the first ten amendments to the Constitution
Blacklist
A record of former employees, who were to be boycotted or punished because they tried to unionize
Boycott
Refusing to buy products until certain conditions are met (colonists refused to buy British goods)
"Brain Trust"
Nickname of the advisors to Franklin Roosevelt, created ideas to combat the problems of the Great Depression
Carpetbaggers
Nickname of the Northerners who went to the South after the Civil War to take advantage of the policies of Reconstruction
Charter
Formal document granting the rights of self-rule
Checks and Balances
Political concept in which each branch of the Government limits the powers of the other branches, limits government's overall power
Compromise of 1850
Compromise to deal with the issues of: the extension of slavery, entrance to California, the slave trade and fugitive slave laws
Confederation
Nonbinding political alliance of independent countries or states
Constitution
The name for the plan and rules of government in America (a social contract)
Containment
A policy of preventing the expansion of a hostile power of idea
Deficit Spending
the government practice of borrowing money in order to spend more money than it raises in taxes
Depression
Economic condition of very high unemployment and a severe decline in production and sales (1930's)
Desegregation
The process of ending racial segregation
Disenfranchised
Losing or not gaving the privilege to vote
Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court rules, people of African descent, could never be citizens, Congress couldn't prohibit slavery in federal territories
Dust Bowl
Nickname for the Midwest during the 1930's, over farming and drought created huge dust storms over the summer months
Emancipation
Term for the freeing of slaves, pres. Lincoln proclaimed southern slaves free during the Civil War
Entrepreneur
Person who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise
Federalism
A system of government in which the nation government shares powers with state and local governments
Federalists
A political party organized to support the passage of the Constitution on the 1790's (Constitution creates a federal system)
Fireside Chats
Pres. Franklin Roosevelt's radio speeches designed to calm Americans during the Great Depression of the 1930's
First Amendment
Most well-known part of the Constitution, the amendment that guarantees individual rights...freedom of the press
Fourteen Points
Nickname of Pres. Wilson's peace plan for Europe after WW1, The League of Nations was a major part of the plan
Fourteenth Amendment
Post-Civil War amendment, intended to secure civil rights (citizenship) for former slaves, overturned the Dred Scott Decision
Freedman's Bureau
Federal agency forned during Reconstruction to aid ex-slaves and refugees of the Civil War, was intiated by Pres. Lincoln
Gettysburg
Turning point battle if the Civil War, victory for the Union, Lee retreated back into the South
Gilded Age
Time of extravagant displays of wealth and excess of America's upper-class during industrialization, (1870's to 1900)
Great Compromise
The compromise that created a bicameral legislature for our national government, combined the Virginia and New Jersey Plans
Homestead Act
Law which gave title to 160 acres of undeveloped land outside of the original 13 colonies, had to live on and improve the land
Impeachment
To charge an elected official (usually associated with the president) with a crime, it is NOT a trial
Imperialism
The forceful extension of a nation\'s authority by territorial conquest establishing economic and political domination of other nations
Indentured Servant
Person who agrees to work for an employer for a specific time (1-2 years) in exchange for passage to Colonial America
Inflation
A period of very steep price increases resulting in the decline of the value of money
Infrastructure
Term which refers to roads, airports, bridges, and utilities. (also known as internal improvements)
Intolerable Acts
Name given by patriots to a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774, punishment for the Boston Tea Party
Isolationism
A national policy of limiting alliances and involvement in international political or economic affairs (U.S. after WW1)
Jamestown
Site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World (1607)
Jim Crow Laws
State and local laws designed to keep blacks in an inferior position in the South after the Civil War, lasted until the 1960\'s
Judicial Review
The Supreme Court\'s power to review (judge the constitutionality) of all acts of government
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Last compromise before the Civil War, settled the issue of where to place the Transcontinental Railroad, (Stephen Douglas)
Labor Union
Organization of workers, bargains with the employer, and negotiates labor contracts with employers. AFL/CIO
Laissez-Faire
Translates to \"let do\" government policy of noninterference in business practices and in the economic affairs of individuals
League of Nations
International organization founded after WW1, goals included disarmament, preventing war, settling disputes, diplomacy
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